Hebrew is Greek

Hebrew is Greek

HEBREW is GREEK  says Liguist Hebrew Professor, Yahuda.

Biblical tribes Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan and Naphtal, Manasseh… were Aegean Greek tribes.
Paleo-Hebrew is Paleo-Greek: Part 1: The Alphabet 1st Edition
by Travis Wayne Goodsell (Author, Translator)
ISBN-13: 978-1539739944 ISBN-10: 1539739945
Yahuda has scientifically proven that both Hebrew and Arabic are Greek in their origin, as is true with the other languages of the world.


Biblical tribes Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan and Naphtal, Manasseh… were Aegean Greek tribes.

Jacob sons, the 12 Tribes of Israel, That Were Not Hebrews

Did Jesus & His Disciples Speak Greek?

Hebrew is Greek – The ‘blocked’ book of Joseph Yahuda

Old Hebrew Language that was created from the Greek language.. before it was converted to Yiddish

700,000 years old Skull discovered in Greek cave completely shatters the Out of Africa theory




A book that “mysteriously disappeared” soon after its publication*

In 1982, a suppressed, ages-old, historical truth,  was resurrected through the publication of a book by Becket Publications of Oxford, England (ISBN O 7289 0013 O). The book, published in English, and titled Hebrew is Greek, was written by lawyer, linguist and researcher, Joseph Yahuda, the son of Isaac Benjamin  Ezekiel Yahuda, an ethnic Jew and longtime researcher and linguist. Though Jewish both by nationality and religion, J. Yahuda could be considered a Greek– according to Isocrates’ definition of a Hellene [see definition below. ed.], since his decades-long, unbiased, and meticulously thorough search reveals the linguistic relationship of numerous groups of words in Hebrew, Greek and Arabic. Work that was published without fear or hesitation by a scholar whose only concern was for the discovery of the truth.

Following the book’s publication, and while only a limited number of copies circulated for a few fortunate individuals, the book disappeared from the face of the earth. It was as if an invisible hand intervened and blocked its circulation. It cannot be found at any public library, it is not sold at any bookstore on earth, not even in a curiosity or antique shop. [Rare book dealers, in the U.S. and the U.K., have told TGR that there have been inquiries after the book, but that they have been unable to locate a copy anywhere. ed.] The only information available about the book throughout the world is its title. No book reviews on this book were ever published, neither positive nor negative, moderate or offensive. Nor, it seems, has there been any other evaluation of the work. One must eventually come to the inescapable conclusion that every one of the copies originally published was somehow withdrawn through some sort of a secret operation with a global reach.

Concerns posed by another Jewish intellectual who wrote the preface of the book.

The research published in the book covers 718 pages. The introduction was written by Jewish professor Saul Levin, though no enthusiasm on his part was evident in his introduction. He admits that following the 1977 publication of his book entitled, The Indo-European and Semitic Languages, J. Yahuda got in touch with him, and they maintained a fruitful relationship through correspondence, though they never actually met in person. The reason for the interest in J. Yahuda expressed by S. Levin, as he himself confessed, was the publication of several writings by J. Yahuda, such as the La Palestine Revisite, written in 1928, Law and Life According to Hebrew Thought (1932) and This Democracy (n.d.), published by Pitman. Professor Levin learned of the contents of the book [from the proofs which were sent to him from time to time] for which he wrote the introduction gradually, as it had already been sent to the printer. As Professor Levin disclosed: “It was J. Yahuda’s congeniality and my inherent curiosity that did not allow me to refuse the writing of the introduction.” [For a better understanding as to why Professor Levin was not enthusiastic about  writing the introduction, consider the fact that] the black Jew, Martin Bernal, has stated: “Saul Levin was among the many Jewish individuals who worked on the publication of [my] book, Black Athena.” A book which has been deemed to be a disgrace and a discredit to serious scholarship by the vast majority of specialists who have read it.

Joseph Yahuda speaks about his work

In the preface of his book, J. Yahuda notes:

This ecumenical research will be reviewed by three separate specialists, one for each language researched, although each specialist does have knowledge of the other two languages. This is not an error committed only by me. I attempted repeatedly, yet unsuccessfully, to find more scholars who would be willing to assist me in my quests. As an example of what I was up against, at the very beginning of an hours-long meeting, one potential colleague exclaimed: “All of this is garbage and we are all wasting our time.” My answer was: “Both you, and I, will be judged for the words we say, whenever we discuss my work.” I hold no hostility or bitterness because of such small-minded opposition to my belief. In fact, during the progress of my research, I twice attempted to arouse [this man’s] interest, but in vain. A little while after the meeting referred to above, I mentioned his degrading comment to Christodoulos Hourmouzios, a graduate of the University of Athens, and an acknowledged specialist on Homer, and he said: ‘ I think you are one of the greatest linguists I know’; he promised complete cooperation with me. Unfortunately, before we could begin our work, he passed away.

“There were others who admitted that they had been convinced; that something did really exist in my theory. However, they did think that my belief in the correspondence of Hebrew with Greek was rather exaggerated. They said I was too ambitious, and suggested, for my own good, that I expect less and adopt a ‘less controversial view.’ One of them, Sir Leon Simon (A British Lord of Jewish descent), a known classicist who knew Hebrew, attended my first lecture on the issue on the evening of Jan. 14th, 1959.He did this even though he was old and had to travel a long distance in bad weather and heavy fog. He introduced me, briefly and carefully, not wanting to commit himself to any decision until the end of my speech. Then, before the audience was asked to pose questions, he said the following, which I noted: ‘I don’t believe that everyone will agree with everything J. Yahuda has told us, as he may have thought that everyone understood what he was saying. Despite any doubts that may exist, I am sure of one thing. He has resolved a mystery that had created confusion for scholars for the past 2.000 years. For, if he is correct in stating that many Greek words that begin with sk were transformed in Hebrew as if sk was a digraph [a combination of two letters to make one simple sound. ed.], or one of the two letters lost, then Homer was not wrong when he left the vrachi [ abbreviated ] vowel at the beginning of the word Skamandros, as in his famous line: ‘Ον Ξανθόν καλεουσι θεοί, άνδρες δε Σκάμανδρον’. [The Gods called Xanthos, mortal men Skamandros. ed.]  I also had a fruitful interview with a scholar of international fame, which was then followed by a series of exchanges of correspondence. This correspondence ceased after he sent me a note, wherein he wrote: ‘It could also be possible that you would say that the English word ball comes from the Greek βάλλω, or that you discover a connection between chow and show since chows are exhibited at shows.

“The result was that I was obliged to fall back on my own sources, and to depend only on my own efforts, thus devoting my free time to this research for the past 30 years or more. Two things kept me going: the unfailing support of my wife, Cecile, and the unprecedented emotions we felt with every new discovery. When my wife was asked by a friend how she was sure of my work, since she knew neither Greek nor Hebrew, she answered: ‘But, I know my husband. He hates speculating, he always insists on finding proof. As a lawyer, he is able to evaluate this proof. He tells me that he has plenty of proof that is convincing, and I believe him.’ There is truly a plethora of ‘proof that is convincing’ which I have attempted to make available, not only to those technically specialized, but also to interested, non-specialist researchers.”

Yahuda realizes the significance of Greek Civilization

“I was somewhat familiar with the Bible, as stated above. My brother, Solomon, and I learned the New Testament in Hebrew translation from a copy that my father had, as part of his personal library. For years, the distant Biblical past was alive in my mind: I lived with the vision of the pyramids to such an extent, and my passion for the Bible was so great, that I developed hostile feelings for the Greeks and Romans. Strangely, this hostility did not involve the Egyptians, who were our enemies, had been the enemies of our forefathers and had so deeply influenced post-Biblical Hebrew. Neither had I been able to learn more than the necessary Latin needed for my law education and practice. However, my feelings for the Greeks and Romans have changed radically since then. Now I realize that our differences were similar to those of a civil war, as fratricidal as the taking of Troy had been, for I became convinced that the Jews are of Greek descent. This revolutionary transformation took place around the time I was thirty years old, following the publishing of my book Law and Life according to Hebrew Thought.  That year (1932), I became interested in biology as a ‘hobby’. During my haphazard study of the issue, I came across various Greek words that were strikingly similar to the Hebrew words of the Bible, and I drew the conclusion that the Greeks had borrowed them from us. I began debating the idea of whether or not I should one day begin a systematic comparison of the two languages. At that time, I was still fascinated with the more traditional studies, and, like everyone else, I believed without a doubt that the Semitic languages were Semitic and the Aryan languages were Aryan. These two could not be mixed. At the same time, though, I was thinking that it would be interesting to collect and   deconstruct a complete list of groups of similar words so as to demonstrate the degree of influence of Hebrew on Greek at the time before Alexander the Great (considering that the reverse influence became stronger following his conquests). I knew very little of where this research would lead me and what the results would show.

“I had such little knowledge of Greek that all I knew were the first letters of the alphabet, knowledge that I had acquired by chance during my studies of mathematics and geometry. I remember asking my friend Gerald Emanuel, in a teashop in 1932, to write the whole Greek alphabet on the bottom of a half-written page. The years passed, but when I published my book Biology and New Medicine in 1951, I then had the opportunity to spend all of my free time on researching those possible links that I suspected existed between Biblical Hebrew and Greek. Following the acquisition of some rudimentary knowledge of Greek grammar, I submerged into the translation of the Septuagint, solely based on my memory of the meaning of the numerous pages that I had chosen to read. Then I read Homer, comparing him to the Bible. One page from the translation of the Iliad, one page from the Old Testament, line for line, page by page; I started with Genesis and the first book of the Iliad, along with the last book of the Odyssey and the 2nd book of ‘Chronicles.’ Day after day, the list of similar words grew longer, until it reached 600 words — including words related to different views and activities of life — which could not be attributed only to the borrowing factor. In any case, history has not witnessed circumstances where such elaborate borrowing would be possible on such a large scale. I was convinced that this phenomenon went past the limits of borrowing, reaching the limits of a genetic relationship. The door of genealogical descent stood before me and I could not attempt to pass through it or climb above it. It should open freely and widely and the key to this was the grammar. The only grammatical characteristics that I knew of that were common to both Greek and Hebrew, concerned the definite article and the dual number nouns [count nouns. ed.]. I stopped reading and began thinking and re-thinking the results of my non-processed research. I used the materials I had: analyzing, classifying, comparing these with the Biblical variations and the dialectic interchanges of the Greek letters, selecting specific words to be compared. Thus, my theory began to develop. Some of the Greek dialectic letters could be used interchangeably, such as the letters ‘k’ and ‘t’, ‘o’ and ‘a’, ‘s’ and ‘d.’  I also noted a curious transformation with Hebrew words: a suffix to a Greek word changed to a prefix in a Hebrew word. Early on during my research, I tested the exactness of the words and verified their meanings. As the number of tests increased, the more effective my research became, and the confidence in my theory rose.

“From the beginning, I based a lot of my work on Arabic. With my theory, it became possible for me to correct the translation of the Septuagint, using the Septuagint and the translation of the Bible, using the Bible. These discoveries cured me of my dyslexia in relationship to Greek and Hebrew and made me capable of reading a Hebrew word as if it had been a variation of the word. I formed a series of phonetic and morphology rules. I gradually gathered a number of valuable facts. Some examples are that the declension dotiki [dative] exists in Hebrew, that the masculine plural is the same in Hebrew and Greek, and that, in general, a compound Greek verb is equivalent to a Hebrew compound verb. I estimate that 9 out of each 10 words of the [Jewish] Bible can be proved to have a purely Greek equivalent. Many issues were resolved which prove that the Greeks and Jews hold some customs and religious convictions in common, whereas the Hebrew language is proven to be richer and more beautiful than believed until today because of the existence of these groups of words. This whole matter is, in practice, consistent with the following two proposals: Biblical Hebrew is Greek; and, the Jews are Asian Greeks. In reality, the conclusion of this massive, extended and complicated research can be summarized in the following brief sentence: Hebrew is ‘Greek wearing a mask.'”

An example for the rest of his co-religionists

As already stated, the research of  J. Yahuda restores part of a universal truth that has fallen into oblivion for millennia. Not only is the Hebrew language “Greek wearing a mask” (in other words, a distorted version of Greek), but, as we have announced at international conventions, there is no other language on the face of the earth except Greek. A few years ago, we made this statement at a convention of the Literary Society Parnassos,  titled: “The Ecumenical Character of the Greek Language,” where we used texts and images to prove this statement. All other languages are just descendants or distorted dialects of Greek, adopted by the peoples.

Finally, we present one of the tables compiled by the undaunted scholar, J. Yahuda, where Hebrew letters, along with their pronunciation in Hebrew appear on the left, the equivalent Greek letters and their pronunciation in the middle, and the Arabic letters and pronunciation on the right. In the preface, just above the table shown below, Yahuda’s first theorem is written, to wit: “The Greek and Hebrew alphabets demonstrate striking similarity insofar as the order of the letters is concerned, their names, their shapes and their pronunciation.” 

We cannot omit to express our admiration for this great man, who, defying the forces of darkness and medieval ignorance, proved to be an unbiased scholar, unburdened by preconceived dogma and purposeful deception. A man who broke the bonds of mischievous misinformation so prevalent in [the past] century, and dared to defy traditional nationalistic and racist fanaticism while declaring a revolution against the international forces of power. He has achieved the level of a true Hellene. After discovering the truth, he struggled to make it known, he revealed it and he published it without fear. His acts were acts of patriotism, since he has raised his compatriots to a level approaching the Greeks. He called them “Asian Greeks.” His life and work truly pronounce him to be of equal value to a Greek, in contrast with those of his compatriots who have denounced him and his book. Is it because they are afraid or is it because they are unable to follow in his footsteps?

In Conclusion

Yahuda has scientifically proven that both Hebrew and Arabic are Greek in their origin, as is true with the other languages of the world. It is to be regretted that the speakers of this distorted Greek dialect do not take advantage of this, so as to elevate themselves to free and Christ-loving Greeks, as their compatriot Yahuda has done. Many of them  prefer to live in the dark; It is a fact to be pitied that some are fanatics who hate everything Greek, especially her history and her language. In the past, many such men appeared in the Roman State as politicians, academics or administrators in the public sector, and fought against everything that was Greek. Nowadays, such men cooperate with the global powers that are propelling the world toward destruction. A destruction that can only be avoided by a rebirth of the only salvation for humanity: Greek Civilization! 


This article was written by Attorney, linguist, and researcher, Konstantinos G. Georganas, for Davlos. Feb. 1999 issue, pp.12931-12937. (Translation by staff. Emphasis not in original text was added.)


Note: The great rhetorician, Isocrates (436-338 B.C.), gave the following definition of a Hellene in his Panagyricus:

Athens has so far outrun the rest of mankind in thought and speech that her disciples are the masters of the rest, and it is due to her that the word “Greek” is not so much a term of birth as it is of mentality, and is applied to a common culture rather than a common descent (50).



Please go back to Alphabet & Language (link below), for more on this important subject.

*TGR received an e-mail  from a Mr. P. P. who tells us that he was able to locate copies of Hebrew is Greek in the following places: Columbia University Library in N.Y., the New York Public Library, and the Library of the Union Theological Seminary of New  York. We wish to thank him for this information. TGR staff visited the library at Princeton University in New Jersey, and found a copy there as well.

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Caledonia: The Ancient Name for Scotland has a Greek Connection


Caledon (ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝ in Greek) is the name of an ancient city-state in the region of Aetolia in Western Greece. The oldest reference to Caledon comes from Homer. Homer mentions Caledon as one of  the Aetolian cities that participated in the Trojan war. Homer also states that Caledon was protected by walls. The Trojan war probably took place during the Mycenaean period 1600 to 1100 BC.  Also excavations in Caledon  show that a city existed during the same period. Some researchers have reached the conclusion that the city was found in the 3rd millennium BC. From all the above, we can deduce that the Caledonian Greeks had a long history and had reached a level of technology that allowed them to  travel long distances.

According to Hughes (1) a wave of Greek migrations took place around 1250BC. One of these groups were the Caledonians  Greek migrated to other areas. Some Caledonians went to the British isles and became the British Caledonians while others moved to East Anatolia where they found the kingdom of Uratu and became known as the Chaldians. There is plenty of evidence (such as the Rillaton Cup) and accounts suggesting that ancient Greek tribes travelled to Britain.

Mainstream history supports that Caledon was just a name given to a large part of Scotland by the Romans. But where did the Romans get the name from? Romans used the Greek location names in most cases but naturally changed it into Latin. It is likely that the name Caledonia was used by the Romans because it was the name already established by the Greeks.


(1) D. Hughes. The British Chronicles, Volume 1, Heritage Books, 2007.

Scotia, Scotland…words of Greek origin



Did you know that the word “Scotland” has Greek origins? In Greek the word “skotos” (written as ΣΚΩΤΟΣ) means “darkness”. In their trade voyages for tin Myceneans and Minoans reached the shores of Britain including the northern territories (what we now call Scotland). Fascinated by the scarcity of sunlight, they described this land as the “dark land”.

Caledonia, a name given to describe most of Scotland during Roman times is also probably related to Greece. Caledonians were one of the dominant tribes of ancient Scotland. In central Greece we find the ancient city of Caledon (ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝ) which is mentioned by Homer. Could  it be that Greeks travelled to and settled in Northern Britain? Is it a coincidence what the Roman writer Solinus C. Iulius (250 AD) in his book “Collectana Rerum Memorabillium” documents the existence of Greek inscriptions on the tablet of  a shrine claiming that Hercules reached the shores of Caledonia?

Greek Minoans have been to America before Columbus

Minoans have been to America before Columbus

Sounds unbelievable, but may be true. Numerous findings seem to concede that the Minoans were keen navigators who crossed the Atlantic. They created colonies even in Canada and exploited local copper mines. All this before Columbus!

It has not been many years since I heard the Professor of the University of Patras Anthony Kantaratos, talking specifically about the possibility of ancient Greeks had arrived in …America, searching for new sources of metals.

I admit that I smiled then, thinking about all the other unlikely I had read about the ancient Greeks in America, Australia or Japan. And I would keep this story in my subconscious, if not learned about a recent book – The Lost Empire of Atlantis of Gavin Menzies- which returned resoundingly the issue and raised a host of discussion on the internet. Gavin Menzies, in his book, initially follows the Minoan traces in Asia Minor, in Egypt, in Yemen, in India and Ceylon- where the Sangam epics of the Tamil still speak about “the magnificent ships of the Greeks bringing gold and leave laden with pepper…”.

Surprised by the museum findings which indicated Strabo and Ptolemy, the author not only considered the navigation secrets held by the Minoans, but also where they found all those quantities of metals that they traded. The copper mines of Cyprus as it is historically known could not even meet the requirements of the Pharaohs. Yet the Minoans gave them bronze saws doped with tin to cut the stone blocks of the …pyramids. As was written in the records of the Acadian king Skarga, the Minoan ships brought since 2350 BC tin from Spain and Britain. And then this unlikely finding of 1450 BC at the Akrotirion in Santorini where did it come from? Lasioderma serricorne, meaning larva of the tobacco leaf! Yes the smoke that we all knew that first arrived in Europe in 16th century AD from the American continent. So, Menzies, now turned west searching to find whether-and how-those intrepid sailors had not only crossed the portals of Hercules, but had also arrived in the New World.

Minoans and Mycenaeans on the Atlantic coast

Minoan ships

The roadmap that was unfolded in the rest of the book by this 72 years old former officer of the British navy was not unprecedented: Two years ago, at the TV channel NET (watch video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtfCGg-o04A), and in the newspaper NEA (www.tanea.gr/politismos/article/?aid=4557236) , geology professor and member of the Central Archaeological Council Margiolakos Elias , had supported the idea that Minoans had explored the coastal areas of Spain, France, Britain and Ireland in search of minerals and perhaps had arrived in Iceland, Greenland and America.

Specifically, the rationale of Mr. Mariolakos was given in a writing of him that you can find published on the Internet. There initially informs us how a geologist deals with one such issue: “The geomythology is a branch of earth science that deals with physical and geological conditions prevailing during the mythological era and, through this analysis, finds the connection between geology and mythology. My own experience as a geologist who has spent his life studying the geology of Greece, showed that (…) in Greek mythology are included physical and geological processes that evolve in very remote areas, such as in the North Atlantic and elsewhere ‘. And then analyzes in detail the ancient sources examined, such as the work of Plutarch “On the face shown attached to cycles of the moon.”

The “suspect” mines

Skeptical as I was in my quest to give “evidence”. From what he told me I concluded that there were two keys to unlock the case of “Greeks in America.” One was a metallurgical inexplicable: U.S. archaeologists have found 5,000 open copper mines (almost entirely pure) on the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan between the U.S. and Canada, where there have been exported some 500,000 tonnes between 2470 to 1050 BC ., which … nobody knows where they went! Specifically, the Indians in these regions then were living in the Stone Age, and only after 1500 BC began to use limited amounts of copper – and those only for jewelry. So who was the “thief” and from where and how did they come? Since the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia were those then passing through the Bronze Age (and copper was then more expensive than gold), the suspicions directed thither.

By striking coincidence indeed, the mysterious massive copper mining both in North America and in Spain and Britain stopped around 1350 BC – The time the volcano of Thera (Santorini) determined the fate of the Minoans. And the Greeks who received the baton (Mycenaeans Achaeans initially, Dorians and Ionians then) are the ones who tell long trips in Ogygia (Iceland), the Sea of Kronos (North Atlantic) and the westernmost coast. On how they went, the answer could only be given to the key called knowledge of ocean currents – currents of the ocean that Homer described as βαθύρροο, meaning flows deeply and βαθυδίνη, twist in the deep. The current of the Gulf of Mexico, the famous Gulf Stream, twists the Atlantic branching in loops that penetrate the Mediterranean and the Baltic. Anyone who knows these places and Waterslides and place properly his hull onto them can “flies”. For example – says Mariolakos – Plutarch concluded that a boat like the “Argo” could have traveled the 900 km distance between Britain and Iceland in 5 days (4-5 miles / hour).

Minoan sea cruises in the sea of Kronos (North Atlantic)

The arguments of Professor Mariolakos were impressive and seemed reasonable. The achievement extraordinary but he could not be satisfied only with the evidence that ancient ships like the “Argo” could go so far – let alone the even more ancient Minoan ships. I remembered a story of 2010 by a Norwegian newspaper, according to which mysterious letters of the period from 1800 to 1000 BC had been carved in granite. These letters deciphered as Minoan by the Norwegian linguist and scholar Kjell Aartun who was honored about it with the gold medal of the king. In Aartun, the Minoan words translated “Soft and pure”, referring to the largest deposit of silver across Europe which were found by these incredible treasure hunters in the Kongsberg region of Oslo. But had they left other traces behind them?

Minoan ship

I asked Dr. Mina Tsikritsi who previously had identified the “earthen computer navigation” of the Minoans about it. When contacting us he questioned the interpretation of Aartun, but was certain that it was Minoans, as a recent study of him added evidence supporting the theory of Professor Mariolakos for passage to the other side of the ocean. He specifically said:

Plutarch on Canada

“Plutarch writes:” As to the great continent, from which the great sea is contained in a circle from the other islands is less in distance, but the Ogygia about five thousand stages traveling by boat with oars. (…) from the mainland Greeks residing nearby places around vagina no less than the Maiotida (lake), whose mouth is in line with the mouth of the Caspian Sea. “The distances between Greenland, Newfoundland and Baffin Island in Canada is about 1,140 km, and between Newfoundland and Baffin Island is about 1,300 km A report that around the bay there are Greeks reveals a Greek colony in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

The important thing in this description is that it provides geographic information that are correct. Indeed, the Gulf of St. Lawrence resembles Maeotid lake (Sea of Azov, Black Sea) and is slightly larger. As for the information that the mouth of the bay is in line with the mouth of the Caspian, looking in Google Earth anyone can easily discern that the two ports are located at latitude 47th, so on the same line. This information is the only reference in ancient literature that shows us that they were able, at that time, to determine the latitude of a place. But there is something more in Plutarch that I consider proof that the theory of travel to America is true”.

So What..

– “He says:” When the star of Saturn, which we call Bright (Φαίνοντα) while those nocturia, arrived in Taurus after a period of thirty years, after much time preparing for the sacrifice … (start the return journey). “This enables us to control the astronomical period was possibly made this trip recounts. Plato had classified the planets in the solar system in order from outside to inside relative to the Earth, with the following names: Fainontas (Saturn) Faethontas (Jupiter) Pyroentas (Mars), Lucifer (Venus) , Stilvontas (Mercury), Sun and Moon. The name Fainontas etymologically means that which is visible, while the word nocturia means this is the last to be seen in the night.

Using special astronomy program I have checked the geographical coordinates of Canada in the time of Plutarch (1st century AD.) At what date and in what month the planet Saturn is in the constellation of Taurus before the sun rises. I have confirmed that every 30 lunar years appears indeed the phenomenon of Saturn rising in Taurus.

Then, again, Plutarch says: “The islands are inhabited by Greeks over and watch the sun hide for less than an hour for thirty days. And the night there is a light darkness and dawn shines from the west.” Since the return journey began early June, then we need to check where they faced the sun hiding under an hour for 30 days. With appropriate program found that at the time of the first century. B.C. Greenland (60 degrees north) the sun set for an hour between 04.05 am and this was for a period of one month, from 9/6 up to 9/7.

This identification indicates that they initially traveled north, reaching close to the Arctic Circle, where the sea was called Cronion Sea (Sea of Cronus). In this area night has actually a dawn like darkness and light. This astronomical connection, combined with the geographical knowledge of the two sites that have the same latitude, shows that the journey described by Plutarch – from America to Carthage, 86 AD – actually happened.

The reasoning was shocking, but what held me was that we were measuring data of a longer trip of the Roman era – a time when perhaps the travelers had in use the Antikythera Mechanism onboard. What evidence do we have that Minoan ships achieved the journey? Surprises from the land of the Vikings gave us the answer.

Traces and intrigues in the New World

What remained was to find relevant evidence on the shores of St. Lawrence or Lake Superior to accept as likely the unlikely of the Minoans presence in America. Menzies mentioned such the “ 1.200 Minoan finds around Lake Superior “. So I set out to find them.

It was revealed that the findings are indeed a lot: the first non-Indian elements were found in mining copper veins, at the Keweenaw Peninsula of Lake Superior – near a village called … Lavrion (Laurium). There was also found a petroglyph of a highly symbolic Minoan ship. Also in Newberry, Michigan, had already in 1896 been found three statues and a label with “strange writing “. Nobody could interpret it then, but when Evans went to the excavations of Knossos – in 1900 – it became apparent that the writing was also related to Linear A.

Minoan ship

The abundance of ‘imaging elements “referring to the Mediterranean was subsequently found in private hands, with most of them ending up to unknown collectors and many of them – gold and silver – is rumored to have been melted by the greedy predators. Most were found in 1925 by a farmer in Illinois, Orville Lowery, and in 1982 by an adventurer named Russ Burrows, who claimed to have found a sanctuary and 13 undisturbed tombs in a cave complex, also in Illinois.

To sum up briefly, the listed Internet findings on American soil include numerous stones with engraved- on them- forms of soldiers in uniforms reminiscent Minoans, Philistines, Mycenaeans, Phoenicians and Egyptians, many Petroglyphs with Minoan and Egyptian types of ships, and other inscriptions with Cypro-Minoan writing and other composited with Etruscan, Latin and Greek words. The most eloquent optically element (if proven authentic) is a medal that was found in Cleveland, Ohio in 2006, the Minoan axe on one side and on the other the Prince of Lilies that we know from the mural in the palace of Knossos (1690 BC)!

Self proclaimed Archaeologists – Messiahs

The issue got more complicated when the “Indiana Jones of the Bronze age” were approached by “archaeologists – militants” of the Mormon Church, who were attempting to vindicate the spoken by their prophets that, America was colonized by… Jews around 2000 BC. Since then an incredible carousel has been erected with nterpretations of any kind -of the findings- to “spring up” on the non scientific magazine Ancient American, while the official archeology is absent.

This paradoxical situation has led to a weakness of the crossing of the truth of the allegations and to the expression of fiery theories. For example, a epigraphologist named Paul Schaffranke claimed in his 1995 lecture that he deciphered the composite writing of the ancient plates and that it tells an incredible Requiem of those first settlers of America: that Greeks of Alexandria – fugitives of the now Christian Roman Empire – the last refuges, strongheld to the Phoenician Mauritania, and from there came together in the Great Lakes, to build their gross and last kingdom!

Indians with Cretan DNA

The only scientific fact that we have to support all the scenarios of colonization of the Mediterranean is the genetic study: «Origin and Diffusion of mtDNA Haplogroup X», 2003 (vl.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180497 /) . In this was detected that the mtDNA haplogroup X2 that is encountered in the Cretans in a high percentage (7.2%) occurs at a similarly high rate (to 5%) in 20,000 members of the Native American tribes of the Northeast America! In such a “Eurasian conclusion” was reached also the cranial comparative study of the University of Michigan «Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants: a comparative craniofacial view», 2001. Then, in 2008, the work of a team of researchers from universities in Greece, USA, Canada, Russia and Turkey, under the professor of the Aristotle University, Constantine Triandafyllidis turned the projector of the genetic tracing back further: he concluded -by DNA- that Minoans had settled in Crete coming from Anatolia – the same place that in the 2nd millennium BC was conquered by the Hittites.

And then I remembered that Minos had married the witch princess of Colchis, Pasiphae. Was Colchis the sister kingdom of the expatriated Minoans? Scenario that fits well with the fact that Georgian epigraphologists insist that the language of the Phaistos Disk is in hieratic script of the ancient Colchis. And what was said in the “Argonauts” by Orpheus about the Argonauts escape to the Baltic through Borysthenes (Dnieper) and their course to the island of Medea’s sister, Circe, to the coast of Mauritania, delivers a new meaning for the extent of Minoan naval.

Should we rewrite the books?

But are all these enough to write again the history books, to forget that Columbus was from “Chios” island of Greece and to engage that “the Last of the Mohicans was a Cretan patriot”? Not yet. Some mummies that were found in the “colonization” of America and in the neighborhood of Stonehenge in England perhaps illuminate better the case. But we will be sure if only archaeologists decide officially.

“Why”, I asked Professor Mariolakos, “Since you are a member of the Central Archaeological Council (KAS), do not send an archaeological expedition on Lake Superior;”. “We should, as by now identified and sunken port projects have been found in the region,” he replied. “From a scientific perspective, the Greek scientists can carry out the research project – and within one to two years we will have the answers. However, the APC is an Advisory Council, which does not form the research department policy and therefore can not take this decision. Besides the ministry, of course, there are the archaeological departments of the University. But in order to do such a thing, we must find both the necessary resources and will by our archaeologists “, added meaningful.

  • Advanced sea-faring knowledge (they sailed to the islands where they were located and then maintained control of said islands, they were the powerhouse of the Mediterranean Sea)
  • Subterranean sewers
  • Water drainage systems
  • Water supply systems
  • Sophisticated waste disposal systems
  • Light control
  • Air flow control
  • Seismic resistant structures
  • Enormous structures
  • Adaptability to higher altitudes
  • Strategic building locations
  • Sophisticated law codes

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Araucanians (Mapuche): Homeric Spartans who colonised Chile

Lautaro an Araucanian chief leader Lautaro an Araucanian chief leader

According to their own legends, the Mapuche or so called Araucanians by the Spanish, arrived in southern Chile about 3.000 B.C, at Homer’s time.

Arrival date is not exactly known. They have the proof that this approximate date can be factual and not a myth: An astounding observation that they have recorded and it has survived all these years: they mention that after they arrived the sea level rose and the peninsula now called Chiloe became an island! Nobody has investigated when that happened.

Where is the peninsula Chiloe in Chile?

Geography teaches us that the rise in sea level took place at the end of the last Ice Age some 8,000 years BC when the sea level rose by about 100 metres. Therefore, it is possible that the early settlers arrived before 8,000 BC. The rise in sea level is also recorded in ancient Greek writings and has been proven by underwater beach deposits in several parts of the world.


If we look at the map of Chile today, we don’t find any peninsula. Instead we find an island called “CHILOE”. This Greek word means edge or land having the shape of lips and as a name peninsula, only in Greek and has survived since before the rise in the sea level when it was indeed a peninsula.

This is remarkable! Chiloe is the heartland of the Araucanians (Mapuche peoples) in the past and it is today as well. Chiloe is the southernmost habitable part of Chile.

Further south the land is inaccessible to humans due to treacherous mountains and violent volcanoes. Therefore, Chiloe is the “Hele” of the country, its most notable landmark. No wonder it has survived as the name of the country CHILE.

At right the map of Chile with the island of “Chiloe” arrowed in.

The name “Chile” pronounced “Hele” by the Araucanians (Mapuche)

In ancient Greek, “Hele” (ΧΕΙΛΗ=lips) therefore Chiloe (Χειλόη) means a ‘tongue, lips’, land having the shape of lips or protruding into the sea, a peninsula. In fact, there is an old Greek town with the same name in northern Asia Minor because it is located on such a promontory of land. Thus, Greeks usually “name” locations and towns with something that describes them. In this case, it is a promontory, called “Hele” in Greek, so that became the name of the human settlement on this promontory. Asia Minor, however, is now part of Turkey and the town’s name has changed.

A Book written by the Araucanian Lonko Kilapán “The Greek origin of the Araucanians”

In 1974, arts professor César Navarrete, publihsed a book entitled “The Greek origin of the Araucanians”, original title, ”El origen griego de los Araucanos”, under the pseudonym Lonko Kilapán.

The creation for the Araucans

The best way to start this article is to expand in another field, a field of pure poetry. Let’s fly for a while with the wings of the araucanic Myth of Creation :

Zen-Zen (greek Ζεύς, Zeus) created Uentru, andras, (greek ανήρ-ανδρός = Man) and placed him in a valley in the Andes mountain range. However, because he was feeling alone, the Godess Gaia (greek γαία, Earth) pointed out to Zen-Zen the need of a companion for Uentru. So Zen-Zen created Kourre (greek Κούρρη or Κόρη) and placed her in another very remote valley, giving her the order: Search for Uentru.

She started looking for him, walking through hills, mountains, ravines and rough paths, until the hard gravel wounded her feet. As soon as Gaia realized that, she asked Zen-Zen to cover the gravel with a layer, and then he created the grass.

The woman could now run on a soft carpet, but her wounds didn’t get better, and at the request of Gaia the God gave each herb a healing power.

Her feet, now, were healed and could run faster; however, the sun was burning her skin. The ever-alert Gaia that took care of everything intervened once again and Zen-Zen created a roof, the trees, so Kourre could run in the forest without problems.

Before long, the plants and the trees bloomed, filling the world with their scent and their colors. Kourre was picking the flowers of the plants and she was throwing them upwards; the petals were quivering, livened up and transformed into wings, and then they were flying in the open air having become butterflies, bees, and an endless variety of birds.

The rainbow appeared in the sky, having gathered all the colors of the flowers and was guiding Kourre in her search Until one day a mysterious music was heard, soft like the rose petals of the dawn under some stout koyan trees, in full bloom, by a river whose transparent water was flowing there was Uentru, who was composing music with the instrument called Trmp Then. Kourre understood what the music wanted to say and knew what love means.

What to admire first! Is it the clarity of perception? The vigilant Gaia-Mother Nature being always present to promote the creation process? The absolute respect for the woman as a vehicle and co-creator of life? The wonderful cooperation between Heaven and Earth? The role of music in the relationship between the Man and the Woman and the fact that the woman is the one who is searching for the man?

It is worth noticing that here there are no traumas, disobediences, betrayals, original sins and punishments. The love of god Zen (a word which is repeated in Araucanic denotes superlative degree : Zen-Zen -the Supreme God of Life, the Living (Ζων, Zon in Greek), Zeus) flows in a fatherly way towards his children and the presents reach the Earth through the woman, that’s why she deserves any respect.

Besides being beautiful, this myth codifies many important things at the same time. To begin with, we notice that the Greek name Κourre (Κούρη or Κόρη, Koure or Kore in Greek means girl, young woman) with which the Araucans call the first woman, codifies the way of her creation: Kourre means the cut off (from the ancient verb keiro (κείρω) = cut); cut off, of course, from the whole Man and not only from one of his sides! The divine intervention (Zen) on the suggestion of the needs of the evolutionary process (Gaias) breaks the loneliness of the unit and a twosome is created so that the process of life can be put in effect. The Woman is searching for the Man in order to know the cause of her creation and the Man sustains her search, working with the music.

Who are the Araucans

The Araucans are a mysterious race of South America. This race has been greatly admired worldwide for its virtues and especially for its unyielding fighting spirit through recent History, since it successfully resisted for three and a half centuries and was never conquered by the Spaniards, either with the weapons or through religion.The surprising fact about these people is that they put up a stout and organized resistance against the superpower of those times, the Spaniards, who, with their supremacy in weaponry at that time, gave the impression that they acted as if they wanted to conquer even the stars, as the Araucan leader Antupillan stressed in one of his speeches in a nearly prophetic way in 1593 AD before the Governor Martin Onieth de Loyola, a speech which is preserved by Spanish chronographers.

The whole text of the amazing speech delivered by Antupillan, representing his nation, during the negotiations for the signing of one of the many treaties made with the Spaniards, is found in the book The Hellenic Origin of the Araucans of Chile.

The cradle of the Araucans, the area of Araucania, is in central-southern Chile, as we know it today, between the rivers Bio-Bio and Tolten, which, according to the araucanic traditions constitutes the heart of Chile.

Where did they derive their power from? Which was the origin and the perspective of these admirable people?

Until recently, only theories had been formulated, many of which approached and some of them actually touched the truth. These people belong to the white race, have European origin, reached Chile from the west, etc.

Their origin

According to what Lonko Kilapan revealead, who is the Epeutuve of the Araucanian race (in ancient Greek Epeotypis, Epeotagos (Επεοτύπης, Επεοταγός) means official historian, narrator of the epics), in about 600 to 800 BC a colonization expedition started from Greece, specifically from Sparta, and crossing Asia Minor they followed the traditional route towards the Far East, going through the north-east of India and reached the area of Laos which derives from the Greek word λαός (= a people). Later they went down the Peninsula of Malaysia, which is simply called Peninsula on the map of Ptolemy, and from there they passed in the Pacific Ocean, which the Greeks called simply Ocean, as the major Ocean of the Earth.

Using the island complexes of Indonesia, Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia as a bridge, they finally reached the Galapagos Islands (Galapagos, a compound word from the Greek words gala (γάλα) = milk, and pagos (πάγος) = rock, which means white rocks) and from there they went over to the American Continent (Peru). All the above island complexes have compound Greek names: Indo-nesia, Micro-nesia, Mela-nesia, Poly-nesia. The second word all of them consist of is nesia, meaning in Greek island complex, while the first one denotes a main property of these islands or their inhabitants. These names were not given by the navigators of the West but they had already been given.

Seeking an appropriate place for the settlement of the new colony, the Spartans were finally led to a latitude corresponding to that of Greece between the 36th and 40th parallel of latitude, in the south of the Equator. There they founded the new city –state and called the area Phyli (Φυλή), meaning race in Greek, from which derives the name Chile (Χιλή) the country has today. Ιn fact, the name Fyli existed as a place name in the Greek territory, too and besides its first meaning (from the verb fyo (φύω) = sprout, germinate, grow), it has also the meaning of preservation, the guardhouse (from the verb fylasso (φυλάσσω) = keep, preserve).

The role of the Oracle at Delphi

However, what did the Spartan colonists want to preserve and they really did so with unyielding strength miles away from their country on the other side of the Earth? Why did the Oracle at Delphi send out a Greek expedition to settle a colony and in particular a Doric one, that is to say a colony of warriors? Lonko Kilapan talks about antipodes (αντίποδες) of the southern hemisphere, meaning, the very opposite, while remarkable researchers in Greece (such as Taxiarhis Tsiogas, Evangelos Drougas, etc) have pointed out that The Greeks living outside Greece had chosen Colchid, ie Peru or else the Land of the Supernortherns (or the uper-southerns if you wish) as a second control point of the globe.

Delphi Oracle
The oracle of Delphi

It is well known that during these times, no colony expedition set off if it didn’t have the approval and the recommendation of the Oracle first as far as the final destination is concerned as well as the route it should follow. So, the Oracle at Delphi was transformed into a kind of Colony Research Office of the whole Globe, and this is the reason why it ought to have filed the geographical knowledge of all the world known by then. It seems that for the Oracle priests, who apparently knew everything, the known world at that time was far broader than we think todayThe Oracle ought to have filed and recorded data about the coastline of South America, since it delegated Spartan colonists to settle there. In his wonderful book The Oracle at Delphi (Athens 1937, re-edited by Demiourgia Publications, Athens 1997), Dimitrios Goudis writes: Among its multifarious political activities, one of the extraordinary feats of the Oracle at Delphi was the vast Greek colonization, which lasted mainly three centuries, from the 8th to 6th century BC and continues: Because the Delphic priesthood had the broadest and most accurate geographical knowledge on these remote countries, too, and maintaining continuous and lasting bonds with every colony that was founded, it recorded all the geographical information which it received from there and, as a consequence, it had global and concise knowledge about a lot of countries. Therefore, nobody else could provide those who asked about them with more accurate information but this amazing centre, where people continuously concentrated from all over the world. The multifaceted and proficient priests of the oracle assiduously gathered and recorded all this information and constituted a world bank of geographical knowledge

Kilapan reveals that the Chilean leader maintained the name Apo since the old times, since his authority directly derived from god Apollo. The Araucans, laconically speaking (meaning briefly and concisely, according to the motto they lived by: Brevity is the soul of wit, used to cut the names; so, Apo-llon becomes Apo, Prometheus becomes Prom, Lycourgos becomes Courgo, etc. In particular the name Apo took the broader meaning of master, chief, being in charge in the Araucanic language, something that is in absolute accordance with the name Archagetas or Archigetis (meaning the principle leader) that the God was given in the Greek colonies. After all, Apollo was regarded as the main founder of the cities and he is said to have founded the city of Sparta, too. The most frequently encountered colony names were given after the god, such as: Apollonia, Pythopolis, Phoebe, Phoebia. At least twenty- five colonies with the name Apollonia are known and reported in ancient times (Stephanos Byzantios, Ethnika – The Nationals. Great Geographical Dictionary of ancient Cities, Places and Nations). According to D. Goudis, the Oracle at Delphi really accomplished a magnificent feat, which cant be compared to any other in the worlds history. We dont have the means to know what ingenious plan it followed to spread the Greek colonies all over the Globe, at carefully chosen key spots. What we do know, however, is that the Araucans kept their secrets safely for over 2000 years. Its like a time capsule that opened in due time.

The Araucanic calendar

According to the Araucanic calendar we are already in the year 2804. This time measuring almost coincides with the Olympic calendar; it is called Olympic, since the first Olympiad, held in 776 BC, is taken as the conventional starting point of time measuring, which is close to the year 800 BC of the Araucanic calendar.

Their nation

Their nation was founded based on the Greek standards, both geographical and political ones. Chile was in the middle, Pikunches (pikun = north) in the north, Williches (willi = South), while on the Andes side there were the Peuelchses (puel = East). All these allied peoples had the same gods, the same language, the same laws, used the same weapons, dressed the same way, but they had their own independent government and only in case of war they were united under one common leader.

The Spartan colonists brought the legislation of Lycourgos with them, which they used in their cities. As time passed, it was called Admapu which means the law of the ancestors, the ancestral moral standards. They brought the same gods and maintained the same traditions.

Some typical examples are: the oracles where Machi (Mantis in Greek μάντις, means diviner) performed the rituals having duties of a priestess like the ones of Pythia, the same sacred tree, the same weapons and the same training as in Greece, the myth of Siren, and the same wedding ceremony that involved the bride’s kidnapping, according to the model of Mythology. As time passed, their population stabilized at 360,000 people and was shared among nine cities of 40,000 people each. This perfect number aimed at a perfect organization based on the Greek state rule- which was later referred by Aristotle that a city must not have either more or fewer than 40,000 dwellers, because in the first case it will be out of control (excess), whereas in the second case it won’t even be a city (deficiency). To put it more simply, more dwellers would cause the problem of lack of food and accommodation for the rest; on the other hand, fewer dwellers would be vulnerable to a potential external attack.

The Araucans had solved this problem the same way as the Spartans did: they controlled the birth rate, did away with the defective ones at birth, caused sterilization to certain women who shouldn’t have children, and they had enacted a law that accepted polygamy, so, this race systematically touched and put into practice higher standards of beauty, psychosomatic health and integrity, meaning that it exceedingly developed all those virtues that characterized the man warrior.

Their numerical system

The numerical system of the Araucans is a copy transfer of the decimal system of the Greeks, although the names of the numbers have not been maintained except the one that constitutes the basis of the system: number ten. The hands denoted number ten, since the fingers are ten (= deca in Greek); and this is where the name of the system decimal (deca-dico) derives from. In the Araucanic language ten is called mare and μάρη in ancient Greek means hand. In Greek we still use today the compound word ευ-μάρεια (ευ+μάρη, meaning good+hand) which means high skill at hands (ευ-χέρεια), mainly financial.

The art of measurement has three stages: firstly, one measures using objects and defining the measuring units; at the second stage the numbers have their own names and form complex numerical systems; finally, at the third stage a rational numerical system with written symbols appears, which is used by the civilized people. It’s important to notice the rationale behind the araucanic numerical system in order to understand their cultural grounds, since, according to Pythagoras, the number is civilization proof as the wisest of all beings.

The Promethean notation

Imagine that you are given a colourful textile as a present and that you decorate your house with it, without suspecting for once that there is possibly coded knowledge hidden there, that would eventually change your life or at least your outlook on life. This is somehow what happens with the textile notation of the Araucans, which they call Prom (from abbreviation of the name Prom-etheus, Prometeo).

But I found the number, profound wisdom, and the letter matching. Mother of the Arts, the labor and the memory, says Prometheus, referring to his presents to humanity.

The numerical calculation using the threads of the Prom notation is done as follows:



Light blue






























  • The units are represented by corresponding knots on a red thread.
  • The tens on a yellow thread
  • The hundreds on a light blue thread
  • The thousands on a green thread
  • The millions on a black thread

Every thread had ten divisions and the number should be placed at the point where it crossed another type of thread since each thread was divided into ten equal parts with other kinds of threads (except the five principle ones). For example, in the second battle of the Araucans against the Inkas, 250,000 invaders clashed with 30,000 Araucan fighters. The first number is recorded as shown in the figure.

We must make clear that this notation system is read from right to left.

Writings read this way have been found in Sparta, too. If the number was a round figure, for example 4,000, there was a knot on a level with four on the green thread. If the number was higher, for example 9,000,000, then the knot was made on a level with nine on the black thread. When the number was higher than 10,000 or 10,000,000, the quantity was marked on the thread of the tens or the hundreds and the order of the thousand or the million was shown with a knot on the corresponding thread. Then the number was read starting from the bigger quantity.

The Araucanic language

According to what was handed over to Lonko Kilapan by his teacher and predecessor Epeutuve Kanio, when the Greek colonists arrived from the West, they faced the dilemma whether they should try to teach their language to the natives they mixed with or learn the language spoken in this country, the so called mapudugu and they were inclined to the second alternative but they applied the grammatical rules of their own language. At the same time they taught the natives the basic words of their language, such as Zeus or Zan (Zen), Gaia (Gue), etc. Besides, many place names that are still maintained today given to mountains, rivers, islands, villages and areas in Chile are of Greek origin, such as the Andes (= those who please, delight, from the Greek verb ανδάνω), Aimon (= bloodlike, from the Greek word αίμων, αιματώδης), Κoriko (= Κώρυκος, place name in Greece), Kido (from the Greek word Κύδος meaning honored glory), Acuileo (= Αχιλλεύς, Achilles), etc.

The Araucanic vocabulary is so rich that exceeds that of many modern languages. Based on an initial estimation and pointing out the fact that the Araucanic was not a written language, Lonko Kilapan asserts that at least 20% of the vocabulary still in use today is Greek.

Certain words have been maintained unchanged and others have been corrupted in the course of so much time and many of them have been abbreviated following the grammatical rule of contraction (synaeresis) and they are not easily recognizable.

When they refer to the earth as land, soil, they use the word mapu, while when they refer to the Earth itself, as the globe, as a feminine living entity, they use the word Gue, that is Gaia (Γαία in Greek means Earth).

The relationship of the Araucans with light is typical of them, since they live, move and exist in accordance with it. In all the modern civilized languages the same word is usually used to denote the various kinds of light using more than one word (periphrastically).

In Araucanic, however, each type of light is denoted with its separate name; so, the Araucans call:

  • pelon light in general
  • ellabun the light of dawn
  • aipin the light of the sun
  • ale the light of the moon
  • airkun the light of the stars, etc.

This variety is really amazing, since they don’t use the same root to denote the various kinds of light. In Greek there is something similar, but we ought to notice that the corresponding words are compound, at least those which are known and are still in use today, such as:

  • light of dawn is called lycavges (λυκαυγές)
  • light of dusk lycophos (λυκόφως) and mouchroma (μούχρωμα)
  • light of the Sun in one word is heliophos (ηλιόφως)
  • light of the moon selinophos ληνόφως) and phegarophoto (φεγγαρόφωτο) etc.

Τhe Araucans have different words to denote the sea wave and the river wave, the fruit-bearing trees and the non-fruit-bearing trees; they have a name for each ore, for each star, for the soul and the spirit; they have words for abstract notions, such as kigneuen, meaning unity, etc.

Gne-chen is the Creator in Araucanic, the Gene-tor of the world (Γενέ-τωρ in Greek means the one giving birth to everything). From the first part of the word its Greek origin is clearly declared.

How did the Araucanic race maintained the knowledge of its Hellenic Origin?

Patroklos body
Homer Iliad: The fight around Patroclos body

To this really burning question Lonko Kilapan, Epeutuve of the Araucanic Race, answers (in a letter of his in the autumn of 1995) using sound arguments, that are worth making the Greeks of Metropolitan Greece think. We transfer his answer in his exact words, along with the answers to other important questions that I had and that you probably have, too:

How was the knowledge of the Hellenic origin maintained in the Araucanic Race?

Science and History in all the races were in the hands of the higher classes: governors, militiamen and priests who, in the course of time, mixed with the common people and together with them Science and History disappeared, as it is the case of the Mayas, the Incas, the Egyptians, etc. This could never happen in the Araucanic Race, which, having predicted such a thing has always had three Historians who mustn’t know each other. Each one of them ought to have a Team, consisting of all the ages, and it was from this team that the successor Historian came. As far as I am concerned, I have 25 persons, scattered from the north to the south of the country, who no one else knows, and their ages range from 6 to 72 years old. All of them have parapsychological abilities (this is required by law), excellent memory, developed judgement and sense of responsibility in the facing of each hardship. Nobody can narrate a historical fact accurately. He will be likely to add his own things and forget others, but he can only narrate a fact that concerns one of his ancestors though not in public. In this case the Historian must be asked to do it.

Are there possibly any other publications or pertinent statements before the publication of your book (in 1974)?

No, because the release to the public of a part of our History and the handing over of military secrets to the Chilean Army was decided in the Senate Council in 1972. There are only publications of mine in newspapers and magazines, because no one can write about History, as I previously explained.

What is the present situation of the Araucans in Chile? Are they conscious of their Hellenic Origin?

During the afternoon discussions the origin of the Race is always stressed and if the meeting is especially important, the Historian is asked to be present. We are scattered all over Chile, at the Universities, in the Armed Forces, in the Navy, in the Air Force, etc. If all of us remained in our land, we would experience the ravages of time after each generation and we would end up being in the same situation as Mapuches, who didn’t do what we did and this is why very few are left in the plains.

Is the Araucanic Language and writing maintained? Is the Araucanic Language taught in the schools of Chile?

The language is maintained as well as the writing with the use of triangles that is morphologically similar to the writing of the numbers. Five years ago, I was in charge of a seminar for teachers of the Araucanic Language and today it has been introduced experimentally in the Primary Schools.

When was the Araucanic Confederation founded and what are its purposes?

There has always been the Araucanic Confederation, only the name has been adapted to contemporary standards. Its purpose is to make the Chileans live the way we do, adopt our Law and control the birth rate, because the overpopulation is the cause of all the wars worldwide.

Are there Araucans in Argentina?
When was, first the word Arauco established and what does it mean?

There are no Araucans in Argentina. The Mapuche Race lived there and came to Chile in the previous century trying to avoid the persecutions which mainly occurred when General Roca was in power. We are generally in contact with the Argentineans. I wrote in the newspaper Kuyo of Mendosa. The Andes mountain range is not the barrier that separates but the backbone that unites Chile and Argentina. The word arauco comes from the similarly called area Rauco in the south of the river Bio-Bio from where Araucania starts. The Spaniards called the inhabitants of this area Raucans and the poet Erthiya (Ercilla in Spanish) spread the name A-raucans. The word Rauco is derived from the verb Raun = flow noisily (Ρέειν in Greek which means flow) and the noun Co = water. Therefore, Rauco (and Arauco) means a place where the roar of the water sounds.

Do you claim that there are no traces of a Greek presence in whole America but Chile How do you explain this?

What I personally attest is that from Chile and towards the West there are Greek and Araucanic words everywhere, whereas from Chile towards the East there aren’t in Argentina and Brazil, or at least there aren’t in the maps.

Is the poet Pablo Neruda Araucan?

Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda, Canto General: …the Araucans my
ancestors and The Greek blood is coming down to
the seas of Chile…

Yes. He was born on the borders of the ancient country of the Araucans (Yekmonsche), between the rivers Maule and Bio-Bio. Neruda was conscious of his origin and that’s why he makes a reference to the heroes of Araucania and he wrote in the Canto General, the one you mention: the Araucans my ancestors and The Greek blood is coming down to the seas of Chile…

Lonko Kilapan, an indigenous Mapuche historian and president of the Araucanian Language Academy wrote a book on “The Greek Origin of the Araucanians of Chile”, which was translated into Greek and is now (2003) in its third Greek edition. He gives an exhaustive evidence of the similarity of the two languages, names and customs. The Nobel winning Chilean poet, Pablo Nerouda used to say that he has “Greek blood in his veins”.

Similarity of the two languages

The similarities in the language, religion & customs between the Greeks and the Mapuche are indeed spectacular, but the best match on the subject of the language, I think, can be made between the Mapuche language (called Mapudungun) and very archaic Greek language, such as from the age of Homer.

As additional proof we present some Araucanian names and their Greek origin:

The Mapuche describe their language as derived from the sounds of nature including animals, birds, trees, wind, rain, etc

Moreover, many words are similar to very ancient Greek words. But how old are they, no precise dates are known as there was no writing back then. It is assumed that the poems of Homer were written down eventually around 800 B.C after they were passed by word of mouth for generations. But such legends can survive for long periods of time. The Cree legends of Canada’s indigenous peoples have only been written in the last two hundred years, after being preserved unwritten for centuries.

Therefore, Homeric language could have ‘started’ thousands of years ago. Officially, writing was established around 776 B.C. with the first Olympic Games and then we had the Age of the Classical Greek of the philosophers, orators, poets, and scientists of the third century B.C. That language, however, was slightly modified from the earlier Homeric age Greek.

Migrations of early Greeks could have carried the early forms of the Homeric language with them into far away places. However, languages evolve with time, so in the end they may only preserve some Greek roots. This is exactly what is found in the Mapuche language today. Moreover, some words are identical in both languages and this is indeed extraordinary

Ancient Greek pronunciation

It should be noted that the pronunciation of Homeric Greek words is not known, therefore, its spelling is only approximate. It has been observed that no spelling mistakes have been seen anywhere in ancient Greek writings. This is because, no spelling mistakes were possible, each letter had a specific sound. This is not so in modern Greek, where many vowels and diphthongs have the same sound today, yet different vowels are given to specific words. The only reason for their spelling today, is that they were passed along from ancient Greek words who may have been pronounced differently.

For example, in the modern word ‘nike’, or ‘νίκη’ in Greek meaning victory, both ‘ϊ’ or ‘η’ have the same sound today, yet in the original ancient Greek word they probably had slightly different sounds. The ancients never made a spelling mistake, but in modern Greek spelling mistakes are common, for example, switching ‘ϊ’ or ‘η’ would not make a difference in the pronunciation of this word

Word comparisons

The Mapuche God of Creation is ‘NGENECHEN’ pronounced Genesis, the ancient Greek word. So, here we have exactly the same word used by the Greeks and the Mapuche!
The word did not come from the Spanish, this is their own original, indigenous word.

Mapuche: ‘MAPU’ is for ‘land’ and ‘CHE’ stands for ‘people’. The most ancient name for ‘Greeks’, was the ‘Acheans”. Here, there is similarity in their names. One of their dialects is called ‘NGOLUCHE’ which is pronounced like ‘glossa’, or ‘language’ in Greek.
Again, we have identical names by both peoples, yet so far away from each other.

Words in Religion and Culture

PITREN” their oldest religion could be derived from the oldest known religion in Greece associated with the Delphic oracle, or ‘Pytho’, the ancient name for ‘Delphi’.

MACHI“, the interpreter of the oracle, doctor, sorcerer, or shaman compares with the Greek equivalent ‘manti’ (greek μάντις). In Greece, no sound instruments were known to accompany the ceremonies with the ‘manti’, but were prominent with the MACHI.
However, Apollon was the God of music and was responsible for killing Python, the sacred snake at Delphi and became in charge of the oracle at a later time. Thus, there is some relationship between the oracle and music in both instances.

KULTRUN” has a Greek equivalent in ’koloos’ or ‘sound’.
“Tru” was the Greek word for ‘sound’, and compares well with the Mapuche word for ‘sound, ‘TRUTRUCAS’.

PIFILKA” the wind instrument has perhaps an equivalent in the Greek verb ‘pifafsko’, to ‘make presentation of sound’.

KALCU” the sorcerer may be equivalent to ‘Kalhas‘ the famous ‘manti’ of the ancients Greece who took part in the Trojan War and predicted the outcome of that war.

Their most sacred site, or altar ‘REWE’ (pronounced exactly like Rea in Greek) is probably named after ‘Rea’, the mother of Cronus, the mother of Zeus. So, here we have identical Gods, yet so far away.

The family house “RUCA” was thatched, its Greek equivalent was ‘ropas’ which means branches and sticks of living trees.

The head of family is “CACIQUE“, or ‘cacignitos’ in ancient Greek. This Mapuche name is also found as far north as the indigenous Crees of Canada meaning the same thing.

The oldest man was the chief, or “TOKI“. This compares with ‘tokas’ in ancient Greek with the same meaning.

A small family group is “LOF“, has the Greek equivalent in either ‘lohos’ that stands for a group of people, or ‘lofos’, which stands for the headdress.

Names of famous Mapuche Heroes and Leaders have also comparable Greek roots:

Lautaro, compares with ‘Eleuthero‘ which means free or freedom.
Alkaman (greek ΑΛΚΑΜΕΝΗΣ ; Alkamenis)
Antimanki (greek ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΣ ; Antimachos)
Elikura (greek ΕΛΙΚΩΡΟΣ ; Elikoros)
Krinno (greek ΚΡΙΝΩΝ ; Krinon)
Kedoman (greek ΚΕΔΟΜΕΝΗΣ ; Kedomenis)
Nekuleo (greek ΝΙΚΟΛΑΟΣ ; Nikolaos)
Antigueno (greek ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΣ ; Antigonos)
Elikurao(greek ΕΛΙΚΩΡΟΣ ; Elicuros)
Alimano (greek ΑΛΙΜΕΝΗΣ ; Alimenis)
Andalio (greek ΑΝΔΑΛΙΩΝ ; Andalion)
Nerudas (greek ΝΕΡΟΥΔΑΣ ; Nerudas)

MICHIMALONGO , compares with ‘machimon’, which stands for ‘strong’, and ‘someone who likes war’.

PELANTARU, compares with ‘pelor (modern greek pelorios)’ which stands for ‘great man’, and ‘someone who wins in war’

ULMEN, the ‘wise men’, or ‘elders’ of the community is ‘oulamos’ in ancient Greek. The same name is also found in the Crees of Canada.

For dressing they wore ‘CHAMMALL’, ‘kalymma’ in Greek with a ‘TRARIWE’ or ‘mitri’ in Greek. Women wore the ‘QUIPAN’ or ‘chiton’ in Greek.

For weaving, Mapuche used a spindle ‘COLIU’, in ancient Greek they used ‘kolops’.

AYUN, the word for ‘love’, literally means ‘dawn’, or ‘rising sun’. Thus, it resembles closely the ancient Greek ‘avgi’ which has the same meanings.

CHOL meaning trees, sounds more like ‘chloe’, with similar meaning.

Many more words deriving from Greek words exist in Araucanian language we cannot show here.


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The Greek Paleologus in Barbados, Caribbean

The tomb of Ferdinando Paleologus, descendant of the brother of the great Byzantine Emperor Constantine Paleologus XI The tomb of Ferdinando Paleologus, descendant of the brother of the great Byzantine Emperor Constantine Paleologus XI

American tourists to the Caribbean are amazed by the Greek influence. A subjugated people, without a country, the Greek culture made its mark in the new world. Greek mariners, with Hispanic names navigated the waters. But, the Greek language also made its mark on the Caribbean.

“The word faros in Spanish comes from the Greek language, said the park ranger at the Castillo San Felipe del Morro (El Morro) in Puerto Rico. “It means light house. What did the Greeks not invent? The first lighthouse was the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the seven marvels of the ancient world, before the famed lighthouse of Alexandria, Egypt.” This revelation was part of a free tour of El Morro, the 16th century citadel, conducted in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Every Saturday and Sunday afternoons, a free trip of the lighthouse is offered in El Morro castle to the public.

El Moro was built on the northwestern point of San Juan, Puerto Rico, in honor of king PhilipII of Spain in 1539. The lighthouse was built on top of the Castillo in 1843. In 1908, the U.S. military replaced it with the current lighthouse. The original lighthouse was destroyed by US warship fire during the 1898 bombardment of the city. In 1983, El Moro was declared a World Heritage site. El Morro was a Spanish defensive military fortification that protected Puerto Rico, “the Key to the Antilles”.

St.John church in Barbados
St John’s Parish Church a very well known church in Barbados where Ferdinando Paleologus was buried,

The Paleologos family of Byzantium left its imprint in Barbados. According to the Cemetery and Memorial Parks website of Barbados, “One intriguing feature of the St John’s Parish Church Cemetery is probably found outside in the graveyard where the tomb of Ferdinando Paleologus (son of Theodore) rests. Paleologus was a descendant of the brother of the great Emperor Constantine XI, the last of the Byzantine Imperial family from the 1400’s that produced the last Christian emperors of Greece. He fled to Barbados after the 1645 Battle of Naseby in England….. He was a church warden of St. John’s Parish having lived there for 20 years where he owned a 197-acre plantation. He managed it from 1649 to 1670 and later died there in 1678. When Paleologus died, he was naturally buried in the St John’s Parish Church, since he had been a prominent person in that community. He left behind a legacy of mystery which until 1844 was buried at St John’s. It was said that he was buried ‘backways’. The rumors persisted until nearly 200 years later in 1844 when a curious church official ordered the vault opened.”

“Paleologus lead coffin was found to have been in a different position to all the others. As the lid was opened, his skeleton was found lodged in quicklime. He had been buried according to Greek Orthodox traditions, which amongst other things, demanded that the dead person’s head should point to the west and their feet to the east. The dignified memorial, wrought in Portland stone portrays a Greek temple with Doric columns surrounding the cross of Constantine carved in the center. The following inscription may still be read:

Here lyeth ye body of Ferdinando Paleologus Descended from ye imperial lyne Of ye last Christian Emperors of Greece Churchwarden of this Parish 1655-1656 Vestryman, Twentye years Died Oct. 3 1678

The estate of Ferdinando still survives today (2005) as a working farm now called the “Ashford Plantation”. Inevitably becoming a tourist attraction, since in the 1980s, when the Ashford Bird Park and animal sanctuary were opened there.” Greek language and culture is a treasure belonging to the international community.

St John’s Parish Church

Ferdinando Paleologus
The tomb of Ferdinando Paleologus in St. Johns Parish Church courtyard in Barbados, Caribbean

Not only is St John’s Parish Church a very well known church, but it is also very beautiful and set in a spectacular location on a cliff overlooking the east coast of Barbados.

A church was first built on the site in 1645, but the existing structure was built in 1836 after previous buildings were destroyed by fire or hurricane. The graveyard holds some interesting headstones, both of well known local families dating back hundreds of years, and also of famous people, including Ferdinando Paleologus who was a descendant of Constantine Paleologus, last emperor of the Byzantium. Paleologus was a planter and church warden on the island until his death in 1670, at which time he was buried under the choir in the Greek fashion of having his head pointing west. In 1831 he was reburied in his present location in the churchyard.


The Indo Greeks and Hellenism in the East.

What Happened to the Greek Settlers in Ancient India and Pakistan etc?

Ancient Greek State in Afghanistan

The Illyrians were Greek

The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, Kosovo , part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south. The first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean.

Greek Writing System Spans Millennia and Did Not Originate From the Phoenicians



Mainstream thinking and history wants us to believe that writing was not invented until around 3200 BC in Mesopotamia (from the Sumerians) and that all other civilizations relied on oral exchange to maintain and transfer knowledge. Furthermore, that the Greeks had to wait for the Phoenicians to start writing until around 800 BC. This interpretation is far from the truth.

Artifacts from Greece  that emerged in the 90’s demonstrate that writing was used since 5260 BC. This fascinating discovery should have changed the perceptions about the origin of writing. For some reason this discovery has not received the global coverage it deserves nor is it taught at schools (as far as we know). The Greek government seems to be against Greek heritage and does everything possible to hide groundbreaking historical discoveries or anything that promotes Greece.

In 1993 professor of prehistoric archaeology George Chourmouziadis, discovered a tablet (later known as the Dispilo Tablet) at Dispilo in a Neolithic lake settlement in Northern Greece dating back to 6000 BC near the city of Kastoria. The Dispilo tablet is a wooden tablet preserved from the lakes mud for thousands of years that has unknown written text on it (part of the text is shown in the articles main picture). The form of writing on the Dispilo tablet is not based on ideograms such as depictions of the moon, the sun or animals but on abstract symbols which provides strong evidence of an advanced writing system.

Using reliable dating methods (carbon dating) scientist were able to conclude that it was made in 5260 BC; thus much older than the Sumerian writing system. According to the evidence at hand the Dispilo writing predates the Sumerian writing system by about 2000 years. Also it is probable that this type of writing pre-existed Linear B; a writing system used by the Mycenaean Greeks (1450-1200 BC)

Specimens of writings predating Sumerian and Phoenician writing systems have also been found in a cave in the Greek island of Gioura (near Alonisos). The specimen ( a piece of pottery with writing; see image below) was dated between 5000 and 4500 BC using the dating method of stromatography ( i.e. calculating the approximate date from the layer of soil in which the finding was excavated from). Although it is not the oldest finding it is impressive due to the fact that the writing appears to belong to the Greek alphabet. Furthermore, research shows that the carvings are not decorations and that they were carved on the clay prior to the process of hardening.


The piece of clay depicts the letters Α Υ and Δ. According to some researchers the full word carved was the ancient Greek word ΑΥΔΙ (pronounced aidi) meaning “voice”.

The discoveries at Dispilo (5260BC) and Gioura (4500BC) demonstrate that writing systems existed in Greece for some thousand of years prior to the the established Greek writing systems of Linear A (1800 to 1450 BC) and Linear B (1450-1200BC).

The decipherment of Linear B proves that the language behind this writing system was Greek and not some other language. According to Michael Ventris the man responsible for deciphering Linear B, it is ” a difficult and archaic Greek, but Greek nevertheless” (1). Prior to Ventris, other scholars including the famous archaelogist Arthur Evans  had also claimed that Linear B expresses Greek and that Phoenician writing originated from Crete and Mycenae.

History textbooks around the world suggest that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. The discoveries in Dispilo, Gioura and the proof that Linear B expresses the Greek language demonstrates that populations in Greece and other parts of Europe (such as at the site of Tartaria in Romania) had a writings system that evolved independently and did not originate from the Phoenicians or the Sumerian although it is obvious that due to the commerce civilizations were in contact and could gave adapted their writing systems by replacing and simplifying some symbols.

With all this evidence at hand demonstrating  a long writing tradition spanning thousands of years in the past how is it possible to claim that writing was introduced to the Greek language by the Phoenicians around 800 BC?

If the Greeks had to wait for the Phoenicians to learn how to write how is it possible that Greek is the considered by linguists and academics as the richest language in the world? Furthermore how is it possible that the Homeric epics were written about 800 BC and contain such a variety of words and structure? According to linguistic research it would have been unlikely for ancient Greeks to have produced their literature without a history of writing of thousands of years.


  1. Cracking the code: the decipherment of Linear B 60 years on


 Ancient Greeks Discovered America Thousands of Years Ago

By Vincenzo Cassano, Epoch Times

Comments September 20, 2013 Updated: March 27, 2016


CAVALESE, Italy—The year 1492 is one of history’s most famous dates, when America was discovered by Europeans. However that “New World” may have been already known to the ancient Greeks, according to a book by Italian physicist and philologist Lucio Russo.

The translated title for Russo’s book would be “The Forgotten America: The Relationship Among Civilizations and an Error Made by Ptolemy.” But the author told the Epoch Times that the title for the English version, which isn’t ready yet, will probably be “When the World Shrunk.”

Some Clues         

Among the many clues of contact between ancient Europeans and Native Americans are the few pre-Columbian texts to have survived the Spanish devastation.

In a book about the origins of the Maya-Quiché people there are many interesting points. The fathers of that civilization, according to the text, were “black people, white people, people of many faces, people of many languages,” and they came from the East. “And it isn’t clear how they crossed over the sea. They crossed over as if there were no sea,” says the text.

However, researchers later decided to translate the Mayan word usually meant for “sea” as “lake.”

There are also many Mayan depictions and texts about men with beards. But Native Americans do not grow beards.

Furthermore, some artworks of the ancient Romans show pineapples, a fruit that originated in South America.

Ways of Thought

Russo, who currently teaches probability at Tor Vergata University of Rome, says the main reason why researchers think America wasn’t known to ancient Greeks is not due to lack of proof, but to scientific dogma.

For years, the theory that civilization evolves according to fixed stages has been dominant. For example, a civilization discovers fire, then invents the wheel, writing, and so on, all the way to modern technology and democracy. All civilizations are supposed to pass through these stages and they can be ranked according to their level of evolution.

But Russo presents a different scenario: inventions, like writing or breeding, didn’t develop independently in every different civilization, but filtered from one to another.

It is also untrue that science becomes better and better with time. There were, in fact, many instances of scientific and cultural decay, like the destruction of Carthage and the fall of Greek civilization, from which the Romans inherited only a small portion of their scientific knowledge.

Importantly, one of the skills they didn’t inherit was how to navigate the oceans.

You can get an idea of this by considering that “the size of the ships in the Hellenistic era was exceeded only in the era of Napoleon” and that Columbus based his trip on a partial recovery of Hellenistic math, according to the book. The Greeks were, among other things, at that time the only civilization that was able to understand that the Earth was round—an understanding that was later lost.

Even today we are in an epoch of “scientific crisis,” Russo told the Epoch Times. But it’s a crisis different from that of Roman times. The modern decay hides itself using technological advancements as a mask and consists in shrinking the availability of knowledge, now the property of a few people.

The Error of Ptolemy

So, how did people come to forget America, if it is true that it was already known to the ancients? The error, according to the author, is mainly due to Ptolemy, who developed a world map finding a midpoint between the claims made by various ancient sources.

The key problem is the identification of the Fortunate Islands, which the ancient Greeks sometimes referred to, as the Canary Islands (near the West coast of Africa). But the Greeks were actually referring to the Antilles, according to Russo. The misunderstanding was due to the Romans and other post-Greek people’s disbelief and incapability of navigating the oceans.

With philological and mathematical reasoning, Russo leads the reader to understand the meaning of all of Ptolemy’s errors—which are generally considered pretty huge—showing how the knowledge of the planet by ancient Greeks was instead very precise. Ptolemy missed the latitude of Canary Islands by 15 degrees latitude, making them to appear on the point of the map were the Antilles would expected to be. Of course America was not on his map.


According to Russo, the book prompted two kinds of extreme reactions. Scientists and philologists showed enthusiasm, while negative reactions came from historians and geographers, whom he said were often unable to understand some logical aspects of his works.

Russo thinks we have “a lot to learn” from the ancient Greeks. For example we should “try to limit excessive specialization,” because the most interesting things can be understood only by those who have a grasp of more than one aspect of human knowlege

 Metal objects, pipes, crucibles and slag found at Tel Dan
Metal objects, pipes, crucibles and slag found at Tel Dan Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology 

Tribe of Dan: Sons of Israel, or of Greek Mercenaries Hired by Egypt?

Samson the Greek? 3,000-year-old archaeological finds at Tel Dan suggest that the Danites were Aegean soldiers hired by Canaan’s Egyptian overlords to keep order.

The Tribe of Dan, one of the 12 “Israelite tribes,” may have started as no such thing. New archaeological evidence suggests that the Danites originated with mercenaries hired from the Aegean and Syria by the Egyptian overlords of Canaan to keep order.

According to the Bible, after the Israelites conquered Canaan, the land was split between the tribes – with the exception of the tribe of Dan. Bitter at their lot, the tribe went northward, conquered and destroyed the city of Laish (also called Leshem), then rebuilt it and renamed it after their ancestor (Judges 18:1-29).

And the coast of the children of Dan went out too little for them: therefore the children of Dan went up to fight against Leshem, and took it, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt therein, and called Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their father” (Joshua 19:47).

Tell el-Qadi had been identified previously as the biblical city of Dan. Now recent excavations have uncovered a large neighborhood from the 12-11th century B.C.E. that shows compelling Aegean influences.

The discoveries have rekindled a longstanding academic brawl over the origin of the Danites. Were they really just a tribe of Israel that was left in the cold, found a conveniently isolated city and conquered it? Do they have anything to do with a mysterious kingdom called Danuna mentioned in ancient writing found in Turkey? Or maybe with the Denyen – a faction of invading Sea Peoples, according to ancient Egyptian sources? Or with the Danaoi, one of the Greek tribes?  Or are these all one and the same? The findings at Tell el-Qadi (now Tel Dan) suggest they could well be.

The city of Dan was built on a mound near the southern foot of Mount Hermon, the tallest mountain in the Golan Heights. Certainly by the standards of the arid Middle East, the area is lush and fertile, well-watered by natural springs. The city’s position was also strategic, smack on a key trading route between Tyre and Damascus.

Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology

The first settlement there dates back 7,000 years, to the Neolithic period. Among the earliest mentions of the city are Egyptian and Mesopotamian texts going back nearly 4,000 years, to the 19th century B.C.E. The site remained more or less continuously occupied through to the end of the Roman period

By the Middle Bronze Age, around 2000 B.C.E., it had become a mighty city, surrounded by massive ramparts, called Laish (La-EESH). By the Late Bronze Age, Laish had established sprawling trade connections with the countries and coastal cities throughout the eastern Mediterranean, including Sidon and Tyre to the north, Egypt to the south, and to the west, Cyprus – and Mycenaean Greece.

Aegean influences: Weapons and gods

Laish’s ties with the Aegean seem to have been strong as far back as the 14th century B.C.E., as attested by the discovery of a tomb built with rough stones in a style akin to that found in Enkomi, in today’s Cyprus, and in Ugarit, on the coast of today’s northern Syria.

In the tomb, the archaeologists found more than 100 ceramic vessels that proved, by chemical analysis, to mostly originate in the Argolid in Greece, the center of Mycenaean culture during the Bronze Age.

This was a time in which the Egyptians were expanding northwards. As Canaan became a province of Egypt, Laish became part of their administrative system.

The excavations at Tel Dan began in 1966 under the direction of Avraham Biran and continued until 1999. After a hiatus of several years, Dr. David Ilan of the Hebrew Union College renewed excavating and, based on old material and new findings, he began to suspect that an old theory about Danite origins, first proposed by Michael Astour and Yigal Yadin in the 1960s, might be right, though their idea was at odds with the biblical narrative. Namely, that the Danites didn’t begin as a tribe of Israel at all, but originated in the Aegean world.

Among the Aegean influences in the city of Dan, Ilan identified pithoi (large storage vessels) in several of the houses, along with pottery, figurines and ritual items originating in the Aegean, Syria and Egypt.

The finds indicate that the peoples living in Dan were a mixed bunch who brought their eating habits, grooming practices, weapons of choice, and their gods with them to the city.

Cultic chamber with bird bowl

Among the more tantalizing discoveries was a modest rectangular building containing a small chamber—a holy-of-holies—in the corner. Ilan has identified this as a cultic structure of a type common in the Aegean. Similar buildings have been found in Enkomi and Kition in Cyprus, and at Phylakopi, on the island of Milos in Greece; locally, the same type was found at the Philistine site of Tel Qasile (in Tel Aviv).

Inside the putative sanctuary in Dan were fragments of a ceramic bowl to which a ceramic bird’s head was attached, called a “bird bowl”. A similar find was made at Tel Qasile (this is a good point to note that the Philistines who lived there are also thought by some to be of Aegean origin).

Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology

The excavators at Dan also found vessels decorated with Aegean-style birds, chalices, offering bowls, a model silo, and curious brain-shaped stones that may have been used in ritual.

Ilan postulates that these Aegean-style artifacts in Dan suggest the presence of worshippers hailing from the Aegean—perhaps the Denyen, Danuna (or Danaoi in Greek), in short, one of the ancient Greek tribes. The Denyen/Danuna were also one of the so-called “Sea Peoples” of Aegean origin who invaded Egypt, as described in Ramesses IIIs mortuary temple relief (1175 B.C.E.).

Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology

Surrounding the putative cultic structure, the excavators uncovered an industrial area featuring furnaces, crucibles, blowpipe nozzles, scrap metal, and slag from bronze smelting.

“We found all kinds of broken objects from the Middle and Late Bronze Ages that they melted and recast into new bronze objects, tools and weapons,” Ilan says. “They were scavengers and recyclers who were desperate for metal. These were crisis years.”

The mysterious proliferation of ‘Dan’

Whether or not the Danites of ancient Israel originated in a Sea People will take more proving. Meanwhile, we can say that a slab carved in Luwian script from the 8th century B.C.E., some 2800 years ago, discovered in southern Turkey, attests to the existence of a Danunian Kingdom.

Elsewhere, in a letter found in the El-Amarna archives (written to Pharaoh Amenhotep IV), the king of the Phoenician city of Tyre mentions a country called Danuna.

Given the indications of very strong cultural ties between Dan and the Aegean world, Ilan believes that Michael Astour and Yigal Yadin were correct: the people of Dan originated, at least in part, with the Denyen/Danuna/Danaoi of the Aegean coastal region, probably in the coastal region where Turkey and Syria meet today.

“The most famous Danite in the Bible is Samson, a quite essential archetype of a Greek hero: He is very strong, his power resides in his long hair, he tells riddles and he hangs out with Philistine women,” Ilan points out.

Yet more oblique evidence may be found in the song of Deborah, describing the tribes’ various roles: “And Dan, why did he stay with the ships,” (Judges 5:17). Dan was apparently the only Israelite tribe that had ships, and was conspicuously absent from giving support to Barak against the forces of Sisera. The writer of Judges seems to hint that the Danites originated elsewhere and were different from the other tribes.

The arrival of the Danuna mercenaries

If Aegean mercenaries came to Dan, they would have been hired. The ones who would have hired them were the Egyptian overlords of Canaan, to help them keep order in the land.

Archaeological evidence of ancient Egyptian control over Canaan has been found throughout Israel.

The Egyptians began raiding the Canaanite lands for plunder and slaves in the 15th century B.C.E., though there was a hiatus in the 14th century: Egypt was undergoing a period of instability and seems to have neglected this area, allowing the Hittite kingdom, based in what is now modern Turkey, to become a major player in the region.

Recognizing this threat in the 13th century B.C.E., the Egyptians seemed to have changed their policy in Canaan.

“The Egyptians were worried about the Hittites in the north, who were expanding, encroaching on their borders and making deals with vassal kings in Syria and Lebanon,” Ilan explains.

Instead of having local proxy rulers, who tended to be unreliable and rebellious, the pharaohs decided to meet the mounting threat of the Hittites by establishing a series of small forts and administrative residences across Canaan. Aside from that at Beth Shean, these have been found in the archaeological sites of Tel Afek, Deir al-Balah, Tel Sharia, and in Tel Lachish.

In Tel Dan itself, the archaeologists found Egyptian cooking pots, a razor blade, and “practice arrowheads” made out of bone that look Egyptian, Ilan told Haaretz. He believes that Laish (Dan) was under Egyptian control during much of the Late Bronze Age.

Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology

But the outposts of the Egyptian empire were not manned solely by Egyptians, Ilan believes. They staffed these places with professional soldiers from the Aegean, Cyprus, Syria, Turkey, Libya, Nubia, and other countries. Much like Roman legionnaires, these soldiers would commit to serve the Egyptian crown for life.  And like the legionnaires, they may have been given land grants at the end of their service.

This system of rule was highly advantageous to the Egyptians, since the foreigners had no allegiance to the local population, allowing the Egyptians to maintain a “Pax Aegyptiaca”.

“This would explain the layers of mixed cultural material at Tel Dan, with elements from Syria, Egypt, Cyprus, and the Aegean,” says Ilan. “We also have dozens of Egyptian cooking pots! These people served the Egyptians and the Egyptian army but they also included merchants doing business,” he adds.

As is the nature of things, Ilan believes that these foreigners married local Canaanite women, a theory supported by the local (Canaanite) cooking vessels found inside the houses. And their children were something new.

But in the late 12th century B.C.E, in part of a thundering collapse of civilization throughout the Middle East, the Egyptians withdrew from Canaan. The erstwhile mercenaries, however, remained. David Ilan believes that these people who stayed behind at Tel Dan—Danuna, Egyptians, Canaanites and various other hybrid people—created a new amalgam society, and it is these who would become the Danites of biblical lore.

SCOTLAND: The Land Of The Ancient Greeks…

   Skotos or Scotos in Greek, means ‘Darkness’.
   Scotland, etymologically means the Land of Darkness. 

 The language, as many years pass, always tells the truth. 

When the Minoans and Mycenaeans were looking for tin they found, in fact, a large amount in the islands north of Heracleidae Columns. These islands were named Kassiterides Islands (Κασσιτερίδες Νήσους).

Keras of Aeolus – Horn Aeolus – Cormwall

The Greeks arriving there, in the south-western part of England, were always caught the strong winds, and so named the peninsula Keras of Aeolus.
When the Romans later had the sovereignty of the area, gave the same name in the region, with the difference that the Romans name for the keras, is horn (Horn-Aiolou). From there, with little alteration, Corn-Aeolus-Corn-walus, reached us today be called Cornwall. The land above, the Greeks called it Scotland, because of the fog and darkness that prevailed there.

Cornwell beach

When the British where maping the area, and asked how the locals called the islands, the natives answered Trisnisi (means in Greek: The three islands)!
The englishmen, without knowing exactly what it means gave the name Iland, plural Isles, and we have the name TRESHNISH ISLES!!!!
A little below we Iona, in Nova Scotia (!) {reminds you of Ionnes, the ancient Greek tribe?}, just to the right an area called Argilos (!) {Greek word meaning Argile, where and below the town of Ayr (a) {Aeras in Greek: Air, wind).

   It is a fact that Scots and Irish consider, based on theit mythology, that their ancestors are the Mycenaeans!

   And a few words: Donisis (Gr.) meaning vibration = danceoROFi = Roof, Oros meaning Mount = the ore came from Mt = ORE, Dagono means bite = Dog = Dangonei = DANG… 


Also in 1991 at the estuary of the river Ems in Bay Bigksmpery – N. England – were discovered the remains of a shipwreck which was carrying bars of cassiterite [A dating method with carbon-14 found the date to be in about 4,000 BC. Minoan inscriptions (from the 2nd Millennium BC) have occasionally been found in varius archaelogical excavations from Anatolia and the Iberian Peninsula,even to Metcalf – cape in the East Coast of the USA!
Even the English Professor Barry Cunliffe, argues that the amber trade was very common among Nordic peoples and the Greeks as early as 2,000 BC and that suggested in numerous findings from the Gouessex, England, the Mycenaean cities and on the coasts of France and Germany. Great story that will not ever be written.]

Research about Pytheas, the ancient Greek seaman and traveller, who gave accounts of travelling to the British Isles in ancient times.
Greeks colonised in all directions in pre-classical times, to the north too.

IRELAND – The Greek roots of the Irish

  “…The Fisi and the Boios, who live in the Erkynion Forest, attacked proactively the Kimvrous in this land, and were undertaken by the Voions in the Istron…This land of this ancient osper was of the Celts, it was surroundedby mostly by a river, even -d- the Nations ot the Celts Boios…”(Strabo,” Geography “Vol. VII p 293, vol. II, E, I, G, 212 – 213, and 6. 312, 20 – 25).
  “…So, in the outbreaks in Europe, circuit by the Istrou sea, coming from the head of the Adriatic to the Sacred mouth of Istria, is the Greek and Macedonians and Epirus (north Greek Nations)…”.


   In the writings of the great Greek historian Strabo, we discover the sovereignty of the Greeks. And they aren’t words of a random person, but one of the biggest leading perhaps, ancient geographers and do these lines are solid proof and clearly historical sources. Can it be any objection?
   So, what does he say? 
   That the limits of the Greeks to the north, reached the Danube and the inlet of the Adriatic Sea. The Boios, who penetrated the German forests and populated them were named over the centuries, Boch. The French, call the Germans Boch (= Boios).
   But lets see the presence of Greeks in England. The Cretan culture monument of Stonehenge, with performances of the swastika ( ancient Greek symbol – stolen by Hitler…) is one of the most clear proof of the presence of ancient Eteocretans in old Albion. 
   Because Eteocretans, as the best sailors of the era, had reached the island and even supplied from there the ore of tin. The swastika was a symbol both of the Greeks at the time of the gods and at the age of copper. The Aryan (white) women of India have as a Talisman symbol the swastika, even until today.
   Homer says: “… I came in the deep ocean at the edge of the world. There is the city and the people of the Cimmerians. Dark clouds surround them from everywhere, the poor Cimmerians, them … (Homer ‘Odyssey’ Raps. Q lyrics. 181-184 and Raps. L lyrics. 14 and 15).
   Through the lyrics of the epic poet, Homer, we see that the Greeks moved to the North not only for settlement purposes and for commercial purposes. The Kimvri are allegedly the indigenous people of Northern Europe, and the Lygians. None other than the known and the verses of Homer referred as Cimmerians.
   In the Irish book «Leadhar gadhal» we read: “In 1240 BC arrived in the country from the islands of the West twenty-four pairs of colonists, led by a Greek prince named Bartoli. Those people became, in time, 5000. But they all died from some kind of illness and were buried collectively, outside Dublin, in their ancestral traditions.Then, men disembarked breed Fig Bolg, Gallionib (Belgians and Gauls). After them came to Ireland, coming from the islands of the West, men of the tribe of Tuatha de Dadan. They were divine originated men and had brought along their magic tools, swords, spears, etc., and the stone of ‘Fate’, upon which sat the Irish Kings to inspire good works. 
   All these invaders once fought first against Fomure, monstrous giants who lived there before them, began after one exhausting war between them. Finally the winners were the men’s race of Tuatha de Dadan. The last battle was in Motura, near Kong (Sorcerer County). And then was lost the hegemony of the Giants in Ireland.
   Certainly you can see the similarity of the Danaans in the tribe of Tuatha de Dadan. But even collate that the stone of “Fate” which was a piece of rock in the cave on Mount Ida in Crete (Greece)… Within that cave, layed awake every nine years Minos of Crete the A, expecting the outpouring of great Zeus in laws should adopt laws to govern his subjects. On this stone sat and later Kings of Ireland, expecting that same outpouring of ancestral god Zeus, the laws they ought to take for the just governance of the Irish.The Irish boast that they are descendants of the Celts and as evidenced by the historical Leadhar gadhal, Celts were of Greek origin.

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9 Responses to “Hebrew is Greek”

  1. Kaeto says:

    I did wonder if they wrote backwards to hide it..

    the right-to-left script, the suppression of vowels suggest secrecy too

  2. Al says:

    They switched letters right to left as in Arabic

  3. Hani says:

    That’s Phoenician , Greeks are originally Pheonicians , Jews created their own alphabet in Babylon (squares looking).

  4. Hani says:

    Their alphabet is Phoenician, their history started with Oruba/Europa’s migration with syriac Zue and building of Tepeth , their name Greek اغريق in Arabic-syriac roots is from غرق drowning , the Name Greek means (he who drowned) , in relation to the flood that drowned the land .

  5. Al says:

    To be fair the first man in the world to read & write was Enoch who invented & created cuneiform script & language in Sumeria, later became Babylonian, Sanskrit Phonecian, Greek, that later influenced ancient Semitic Arabic, Hebrew & other Eastern & Western languages

  6. reynolds says:

    “How then did the name Yehuda evolve into its derivative, “Jew,” and how did it make its way from being the name of one of the tribes of Israel to being identified with the whole Jewish People”?

    Yes, one of a thousand questions as to the origin of the Jew. The word Jew first appears 12 BOOKS into the Bible. Then there’s the Ashkenazi’s and yet another argument, that some don’t accept. All we know is that they are here and identifiable as a group.

    My point here is that I would NOT GIVE THESE PEOPLE CREDIT FOR ANYTHING WORTHWHILE TO HUMANITY. I do give them credit for lying, stealing, degeneracy, usury and money-grabbing. Yiddish itself is a stolen language from German.

  7. johnno says:

    Hi – where di the photos of the book come from and what is the title? The one with the Baphomet?

    • Jesus Christ ✝ Jesus Christ ✝ says:

      I found it on a website researching hebrew is greek a while back.
      But it is very ancient, hence the reverse greek language (ancient hebrew) on it.
      Too ancient for any Jew to know where it came from.

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