300,000 BCE –7000 BCE (Paleolithic) Archaeologists have designated this long stretch of time the Paleolithic period because most tools are made from stone. Based on finds, we know that people inhabited both the Nile valley and its nearby deserts as environmental conditions permitted. The Lower Paleolithic period (ca. 300,000–90,000 B.C.) is the earliest occupation known in Egypt and these ancestors of humans often used a bifacial tool we call the Acheulian hand ax. It is easily recognized and examples have been recovered in many parts of the desert. From about 90,000 to 35,000 B.C., groups of Middle Paleolithic people who settled at springs in the desert and along the river left behind more sophisticated tool kits that are dominated by blades and retouched bifaces. Upper Paleolithic cultures (ca. 35,000–7000 B.C.) produced tool kits composed largely of monoliths. Sites from this latter period have also yielded hearths, plant and animal remains, and a few human burials.

300,000 BCE–90,000 BCE). The Nile Valley is first inhabited in the Lower Paleolithic Period Neolithic people continue to create stone tools, and exploit domesticated plants and animals

9,000 BCE – c. 6,000 BCE Faiyum A Culture in Egypt.

7000 BCE–4500 BCE In the ensuing millennia many forms of art flourish, including jewelry (faience beads), ceramic vessels, geometric figures, and pottery, much of which is found in tombs. Hierakonpolis in the south, the largest Predynastic settlement known, is the center of political control. Neolithic Cultures — The earliest permanent settlements belong to this period. Their occupation is identified from the remains of huts, hearths, granaries, and nonportable stone tools for grinding grains. People had now begun to exploit domesticated plants and animals, although animal bones indicate that hunting of birds, small game, and fish continues to be important to the economy. Stone tools remain significant components of the material culture, but tools of bone and ceramic vessels are now used as well. At the site of Merimde Beni Salama in the Delta, a representation of a human face is the earliest known example of sculpture from ancient Egypt.

6000 BCE Egyptians settled in the valley near Nile. They used river Nile’s clay and silt for pottery vessels.

6,000 BCE – c. 640 CE Papyrus harvested used for multiple purposes

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE  Anubis is developed as a god of the dead during the Predynastic Period

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Heka develops during the Predynastic Period.

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Art develops during the Pre-Dynastic Period.

6,000 BCE Nile River Valley first inhabited.

6,000 BCE Earliest Egyptian Burial Chamber dug at Saqqara.

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE The sacred bull which is later known as Apis worshiped during the Predynastic Period.

6,000 BCE – c. 30 BCE Neith is worshiped as one of the most enduring deities in the nation’s history.

6,000 BCE – c. 30 BCE The God Thoth is worshiped

6,000 BCE – 3,150 BCE The Predynastic Period

6,000 BCE Burial of the Dead in Egypt.

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Worship of Osiris begins in Pre-Dynastic Period

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Djed symbol in use during the Predynastic Period

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Nepthys is a popular goddess during the Predynastic Period

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Rulers of the Predynastic Period of Egypt known as “Followers of Horus”.

6,000 BCE – c. 3,150 BCE Uat-Ur mentioned in latter Predynastic Period as name for Mediterranean Sea.

5,500 BCE Oldest glazed ceramic ware workshop founded at Abydos.

5000 BCE Organized farming begins. People of Egypt farmed cattle and grew wheat and barley on the Nile valley.

5,000 BCE – c. 4,000 BCE
Merimba Culture

4500 BCE Egyptians began to build ships and boats with sails. Boats were the common form of transport.

4500 BCE –3800 BCE (Badarian Period) Although most sites of this period are cemeteries located in the low desert of the Nile valley proper, the Delta site of Merimde Beni Salama is the largest known in Egypt from this time. The Nile valley sites located in Middle Egypt in the vicinity of the modern town of Badari give the period its name. The numerous Badarian cemeteries reveal a formal burial program that includes constructing a tomb, positioning the body, and supplying the deceased with equipment for an afterlife. The most common burial objects are finely made bowls of Nile clay in brown or red. Tombs occasionally contain jewelry—including the earliest glazed stone beads—and sometimes small human figures of ivory.

4,500 BCE – c. 4,000 BCE Badarian Culture

4000 BCE Egyptians trace their origins to the Mount Rwenzori range in East Africa

4,000 BCE – c. 3,500 BCE Amratian Culture (also known as Naqada I)

4,000 BCE Depictions of gods and afterlife on walls of Egyptian tombs.

4,000 BCE – c. 3,000 BCE Trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.

4,000 BCE El Omari, Ma’adi, and Tasian Cultures.

3800 BCE–3650 BCE (Naqada I) Occupation increases throughout the Nile valley and cemeteries and settlements appear in a number of places in the Delta as well. None of the known sites is very large, although Hierakonpolis far to the south is the largest population center known. Settlement size and distribution are primarily understood from the well-known cemeteries of the period, including those near the modern town of Naqada in Upper Egypt, for which the period is named. The formal burial program begun in the Badarian Period continues, with increased numbers of ceramic vessels—some of which display geometric figures and hunting scenes—placed in the tombs along with stone vessels and slate cosmetic palettes of rhomboid and animal forms. As in the Badarian Period, figures and jewelry are occasionally placed in tombs, especially at the end of the period and into early Naqada II. Village economies are based on agriculture and herding, although wild birds and fish supplement the diet.

3650 BCE–3300 BCE (Naqada II) Substantial change in the social organization of Predynastic society occurs during this period, identified by the size and arrangement of settlement and cemetery sites as well as the contents of tombs. Burial goods are similar to those of the Naqada I Period, although styles of vessels and palettes change. Faience, a glazed ceramic material, appears for the first time, largely in the form of beads. Some members of Naqada II society seem to have access to greater wealth, allowing them to construct more elaborate tombs with richer contents. Items signifying high status in later periods begin to appear, again indicating social differentiation among the population. A new type of pottery is made from a buff-colored desert clay and decorated in red paint with geometric forms and boat and desert scenes. The clay is rare and the decorative forms consistent. Consequently, it is believed that, unlike other ceramic types, this pottery was produced in only a few workshops rather than by each village.

3,500 BCE Egyptians invent the sail

3,500 BCE – c. 3,200 BCE Gerzean Culture (also known as Naqada II). First hieroglyphic symbols and writings were created usually placed on their walls.

3,414 BCE – c. 3,100 BCE Xois founded as a city during the 1st Dynasty.

3300 BCE–3100 BCE (Naqada III) The most important cultural changes associated with this period are reflected in representations on objects. The scenes on large, ceremonial slate palettes indicate that one individual holds significant power. This individual is depicted with numerous symbols linked to Egyptian kingship in pharaonic times. The scenes are carved in some of the earliest known raised relief, and palettes as well as small ivory labels or tags display the first stages of hieroglyphic writing. Symbols of various pharaonic deities occur on palettes, tags, and a few three-dimensional objects. Hierakonpolis is the largest Predynastic settlement and may be the center of political control, but the sites of Naqada and Abydos are significant as well. It is now known that Abydos was the burial ground of late Predynastic leaders, testifying to the importance of this region.

3,200 BCE Hieroglyphic script developed

3,200 BCE – 3,150 BCE Naqada III Period Culture.

3,200 BCE – c. 3,000 BCE Probable dates for creation of shaped like oversized arrow heads and used to engrave detailed images or messages with symbols of gods and other things (Narmer Palette.)

3,150 BCE Hieratic script develops following hieroglyphic script

3,150 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE First Obelisks created during the Early Dynastic Period.

3,150 BCE – c. 30 BCE Worship of Seshat from the Early Dynastic Period through the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

3,150 BCE Memphis Egypt known as Hut-Ka-Ptah (“Mansion of the Soul of Ptah”).

3,150 BCE – c. 495 CE Apis worshiped from the Early Dynastic Period through most of the Roman Period.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,890 BCE Apis worshiped by name in the First Dynasty

3,150 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE Heka appears in inscriptions during the Early Dynastic Period

3,150 BCE King Menes unifies Egypt through conquest.

3,150 BCE – 2,613 BCE Early Dynastic period with First Kings.

3,150 BCE – c. 30 BCE Life expands in the City of Memphis

3,150 BCE – c. 30 BCE Duration of the worship of Osiris.

3,150 BCE – 2,613 BCE The Early Dynastic Period; beginning of historic dynasties.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,890 BCE First Dynasty.

3,150 BCE – c. 3,100 BCE Reign of Menes, a.k.a. Narmer, first king who is thought to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE Set is worshiped as a hero-god during Early Dynastic Period of Egypt.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,890 BCE Anubis appears on tomb walls during the First Dynasty of Egypt.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE Ankh symbol appears during the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE Neith is worshiped as a war-goddess during the Early Dynastic Period.

3,150 BCE – c. 2,890 BCE Serket associated with the god Nun and creation of the world during the First Dynasty

3,150 BCE Serket associated with the Scorpion Kings of the Predynastic Period

3100 BCE-2950 BCE Late Predynastic Period. Egyptian state foundation. Walled towns and villages were built in Egypt.

3100 BCE The Egyptian civilization began when King Narmer founding the first Egyptian dynasty

3100-2950: The First and second dynasties ruled Egypt and began using hieroglyphics. Hor-Aha, is considered to be the first king of the first Dynasty.  Memphis, in Lower Egypt, was established as the capital of Egypt

3,100 BCE – 2,181 BCE Xois inscribed on Palermo Stone as an ancient city during the 5th Dynasty.

3,100 BCE Reign of King Hor-Aha.

3,100 BCE hieroglyphic writing in Egypt

3,050 BCE
Reign of King Djer.

3,000 BCE the Egyptians worship the sun and begin to measure time through a calendar based on the three natural cycles (the solar day, the lunar month and the solar year)

3,000 BCE
Trade has been established between Syria and Egypt.

3,000 BCE Reign of King Djet.

2,990 BCE Reign of King Den, son of Merneith, early female ruler

2950 BC 2950-2575: The first Egyptian pyramid is built – the Step Pyramid at Saqqara for King Zoser (aka Djoser) who was one of the kings of the 3rd Dynasty. The capital city of Memphis were created.

2,920 BCE – c. 2,890 BCE
Reign of Qa’a, last pharaoh of the First Dynasty

2,920 BCE pharaoh Menes/Aha conquers the north and unites most of Egypt, and builds the capital at Hiku-Ptah (Memphis), the site of the cult of Ptah (1st dynasty)

2,900 BCE king Djer is buried at Abydos, the seat of the cult of Osiris, lord of the Underworld and husband of Isis, and his “mastaba” becomes considered the grave of Osiris

2,890 BCE Hetepsekhemwy founds the second dynasty in Egypt

2,890 BCE – c. 2,670 BCE Seshat first mentioned as goddess of writing and measurement in the 2nd Dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period

2,890 BCE – c. 2,670 BCE Second Dynasty

2,890 BCE – c. 2,670 BCE Bastet godess gains in popularity during the 2nd Dynasty

2,800 BCE Egyptians begin mining in the Sinai

2,700 BCE Egyptians write on papyrus

2,670 BCE – c. 2,650 BCE
The Step Pyramid is built by Imhotep under reign of King Djoser.

2,670 BCE Reign of King Djoser in Egypt, builder of the first pyramid.

2,670 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE Third Dynasty in Ancient Egypt.

2,670 BCE – c. 2,613 BCE Concepts later included in Book of the Dead inscribed in tombs of Third Dynasty of Egypt.

2,670 BCE Imhotep creates King Djoser’s Step Pyramid and Pyramid Complex at Saqqara, Egypt.

2,667 BCE – c. 2,600 BCE Attributed dates of Imhotep’s medical and architectural achievements.

2,667 BCE – 2,648 BCE Imhotep in Egypt writes medical texts describing diagnosis and treatment of 100 diseases and 48 injuries.

2,660 BCE Pharaoh Kasekhemwy completes the union of north and south Egypt, and builds the first fortress on the Nile, at Buhen

2,650 BCE Reign of King Sekhemket in Egypt, builder of the Buried Pyramid.

2649 BCE–2150 BCE The pyramids of Giza and Saqqara arise in the Old Kingdom, one of the most dynamic and innovative periods in Egyptian culture. (Dynasties 3–6) The Old Kingdom, best known for the pyramids of Giza and Saqqara, is one of the most dynamic and innovative periods for Egyptian culture. Not only do the Egyptians master the art of building in stone, but over a period of 500 years they define the essence of their art, establishing artistic canons that will last for more than 3,000 years.

2,649 BCE Zanakht founds the 3rd dynasty

2,640 BCE Reign of the King Khaba in Egypt, builder of the Layer Pyramid.

2,630 BCE – 2,613 BCE Reign of King Huni in Egypt, last ruler of the Third Dynasty, Early Dynastic Period.

2,630 BCE Zanakht dies and is succeeded by Djoser

2,620 BCE Imhotep, high priest of Ptah at Memphis and founder of Medicine, erects a pyramid made of stone at Saqqara (overlooking Memphis) for pharaoh Djoser (“step pyramid”)

2,613 BCE – 2,181 BCE Art becomes standardized by the king during the Old Kingdom

2,613 BCE – 2,181 BCE Heka associated with the heart and tongue and the gods Sia and Hu during the Old Kingdom

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE The Period of the Old Kingdom

2,613 BCE – 2,498 BCE Trade already well established between Egypt and The Land of Punt.

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE Serket is invoked in protective spells during the period of the Old Kingdom

2,613 BCE – 2,589 BCE Reign of Sneferu, first king of 4th Dynasty

2,613 BCE – 2,181 BCE The Faiyum becomes the preferred hunting grounds for kings and nobles during the Old Kingdom

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE Anubis is the sole God of the Dead during the Old Kingdom period

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE The goddess Ma’at first appears during the period of the Old Kingdom

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE Seshat associated with the House of Life in temples or temple precincts

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE Images of Bes first appear in the period of the Old Kingdom of Egypt.

2,613 BCE – c. 2,181 BCE Memphis is capital of Old Kingdom in Egypt.

2,613 BCE – 2,589 BCE King Sneferu experiments with pyramid building; creates first true pyramid in Egypt.

2,611 BCE Djoser dies

2,600 BCE poetry and music

2,599 BCE Huni becomes pharaoh and builds the step pyramid of Maidun (completed by his successor Sneferu)

2,589 BCE – 2,566 BCE Reign of King Khufu (Cheops) during which the Great Pyramid of Giza is built.

2,575 BCE Sneferu founds the 4th dynasty (“old kingdom”) and builds in Dahshur the first pyramid with straight sides (“red pyramid”)

2575 BC 2575 -2150 BC: The Old Kingdom (the 4th-8th Dynasties) – The Great Pyramids of Egypt were built at Dahshur and Giza and The Great Sphinx of Giza was built. Became revered as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. King Unas (the last ruler of the 5th Dynasty) had the burial chamber in his pyramid inscribed with spells for the afterlife. These are referred to as the Pyramid Texts.

2,566 BCE – 2,558 BCE Reign of King Djedefre in Egypt.

2,560 BCE The Great Pyramid is constructed by Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).

2,558 BCE – 2,532 BCE Reign of King Khafre in Egypt; second pyramid complex at Giza completed.

2,551 BCE Sneferu dies and is succeeded by Khufu/Cheops

2,550 BCE architect Hemon builds the “great pyramid” at Giza (146m tall) for pharoah Khufu/Cheops

2,532 BCE – 2,503 BCE Reign of King Menkaure, builder of the third pyramid at Giza, in Egypt.

2,520 BCE Khephren becomes pharaoh

2,515 BCE The Sphinx is built for pharaoh Khephren

2,503 BCE – 2,498 BCE
Reign of the King Shepsekaf in Egypt.

2,500 BCE The Great Sphinx is built at Giza.

2,498 BCE – 2,345 BCE
Trade between Egypt and Punt prospers.

2,498 BCE – 2,491 BCE
Reign of the King Userkaf in Egypt.

2,494 BCE Khephren dies

2,490 BCE – 2,477 BCE
Reign of King Sahure in Egypt.

2,477 BCE – 2,467 BCE
Reign of the King Neferiskare Kakai in Egypt.

2,460 BCE – 2,458 BCE
Reign of the King Neferefre in Egypt.

2,458 BCE – c. 2,457 BCE
Reign of King Shepseskare in Egypt.

2,465 BCE Userkhaf founds the 5th dynasty

2,445 BCE – 2,422 BCE
Reign of the King Nyussere Ini of Egypt.

2,422 BCE – 2,414 BCE
Reign of King Menkauhor in Egypt.

2,414 BCE – 2,375 BCE
Reign of King Djedkare Isesi in Egypt.

2,400 BCE – c. 2,300 BCE
The Pyramid Texts written, the oldest religious literature in Egypt.

2,400 BCE – 2,300 BCE
Qebhet (as Kebehwet) mentioned in the Pyramid Texts of Egypt as a Celestial Serpent deity.

2,400 BCE – c. 2,300 BCE
Bastet associated with the king of Egypt as nursemaid and protector.

2,375 BCE – 2,345 BCE
Reign of King Unas in Egypt.

2,345 BCE – 2,333 BCE
Reign of King Teti in Egypt.

2,356 BCE Unas becomes pharaoh

2,350 BCE religious texts are inscribed in the burial chamber of pharoah Unas/Wenis

2,323 BCE Unas is murdered and Teti founds the 6th dynasty

2,289 BCE Teti dies and his son Pepi I succeeds him

2,255 BCE Pepi I dies and is buried in a pyramid, “Man-nefer-mare”, which gives Hiku-Ptah its new name Men-nefer, or Memphis

2,181 BCE – c. 2,040 BCE
First Intermediate Period in Egypt.

2,150 BCE–2,030 BCE Power decentralizes during the First Intermediate Period –(Dynasty 8–mid-Dynasty 11) By the end of the Old Kingdom, centralized power has weakened. During the First Intermediate Period, Egypt is ruled by two competing dynasties, one based at Heracleopolis in the north, the other based at Thebes in the south.

2,134 BC 2125-1975 BC: The 9th-11th Egyptian Dynasties the 1st Intermediate Period. During this time Egypt saw a breakdown of central government. Egypt splits into two smaller states with two capitals (Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south).

2,100 BCE: Egyptian Book of the Dead

2,064 BCE – 1,986 BCE
Twin Dynasty Wars in Egypt.

2,061 BCE Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I becomes pharaoh in Thebes

2,040 BCE Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I wins the civil war, reunites Egypt, makes Thebes the capital of all Egypt, establishes the 11th dynasty (“middle kingdom”) and builds the mortuary complex of Deir el Bahri

2030 BCE–1640 BCE Egypt Reunified again by the Theban king Mentuhotep II in the Middle Kingdom — (Middle Kingdom, mid-Dynasty 11–Dynasty 13) The Theban king Mentuhotep II reunites Upper and Lower Egypt, establishing the capital at Thebes and ushering in the Middle Kingdom. A renewed flowering of the arts is evident, especially in Mentuhotep’s innovative funerary temple in western Thebes, and in the exquisite painted reliefs decorating this structure and the tombs of officials in the surrounding cemeteries. For more information, see Middle Kingdom.

2,010 BCE Mentuhotep I dies and is succeeded by Mentuhotep II

2,000 BCE the first obelisks are erected at Heliopolis (Cairo), the site of the cult of Ra/Atum

1,991 BCE Amenemhet I seizes power (12th dynasty), moves the capital to Ith-Tawy (Lisht), south of Memphis, builds a huge pyramid at Its-Tway and builds the “Wall of the Prince” in the Sinai to protect Egypt from invasions

1975 BC 1975-1640 BC The 11th-14th Egyptian Dynasties the Middle Kingdom – Amenemhet is the most notable pharaoh who overthrew Mentuhotep III. This was the classical period of literature and art in ancient Egypt history. But Mentuhotep reunites Egypt. Amenemhet builds the pyramid of Hawara with its labyrinth

1,962 BCE Amenemhet dies and Senusret I succeeds him, expanding the reign to the third cataract and building the fortesses at Semna and Kerma

1,900 BCE ceremonies are held in Abydos to honor Osiris (“Osiris’ mysteries”) that recount the death and resurrection of the god

1,844 BCE Amenemhet III becomes pharaoh and builds the “Labyrinth” at Harawa

1,800 BCE The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus deals with women’s health and contraception.

1,800 BCE Bronze working introduced to Egypt.

1,800 BCE “The Adventures of Sinuhe” In spite of all that he had done to unite Egypt and bring peace and prosperity to her after years of civil war, Pharaoh Amen-em-het went in constant danger from plots to murder him, hatched by one great lord or another who wished to seize his throne.

1,797 BCE Amenemhet III dies and his dynasty begins to decline

1,783 BCE Avaris is built and set as capital of Hyksos.

1,782 BCE – c. 1,570 BCE Second Intermediate Period in Egypt.

1,700 BCE The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.

1,650 BCE – 1,550 BCE Xois serves as capital of the 14th Dynasty.

1,640 BCE An Asian population, the Hyksos, Semitic people from Palestine, seizes power in northern Egypt (the Delta), with capital in Avaris, and introduces the horse-driven chariot (15th and 16th dynasties)

1,640 BCE the Egyptians still rule on south Egypt, maintaining their capital at Thebes, and Inyotef V founds the 17th dynasty

1,600 BCE The Edwin Smith Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text, is written, supposedly as a copy of Imhotep’s earlier work.

1630 BC 1630 -1520 BC The 15th-17th Egyptian Dynasties the 2nd Intermediate Period
Hyksos raiders from Asia and moved into the Delta and introduced the Egyptians to the chariot.  Ahmose eventually expelled the Hyksos from Egypt Around 1550 BC several of the royal tombs were built in the Valley of the Kings.

1,570 BCE – c. 1,069 BCE The New Kingdom of Egypt.

1,550 BCE Ahmose I defeats and expels the Hyksos from Egypt and destroy their capital Avaris. Ahmose I becomes pharaoh (“new kingdom”, 18th dynasty)

1,550 BCE Composition of The Book of the Dead in Egypt.

1,532 BCE Ahmose I of Thebes defeats the Hyksos at Avaris and expels them from Egypt

1,530 BCE Work begins on the huge religious complex of Karnak to the god Amon at Luxor (Thebes)

1525 BCE Ahmose I dies and is succeeded by Amenhotep I

1539 BC 1539 -1075 BC: The 18th-20th Egyptian Dynasties New Kingdom and the building of the tombs of the Valley of Kings. Egyptian civilization grew in Near East and Nubia. The female pharaoh Hatshepsut ruled Egypt. Ramesses II ruled Egypt. King Tutankhamun was buried in the Valley of the Kings in 1325 BCE. The great Pharoahs included Hatshepsut (the famous female Pharoah), Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Tuthmosis and Ramesses II. King Akhenaten established a new religious order worshipping the sun-god Aten.
During this time the Egyptians developed a permanent army. Ramesses XI was the last of the rulers of the New Kingdom

1520 BCE Amenhotep I orders the separation of mortuary temples and royal tombs at the necropolis outside Thebes

1504 BCE Amenhotep I dies and is succeeded by his brother-in-law Tuthmosis I, who campaigns all the way to Mesopotamia, makes Thebes the most imposing city of the kingdom and erects the Obelisk at the Karnak temple

1,504 BCE – 1,492 BCE Egyptian empire reaches greatest extent under Tuthmosis I.

1500 BCE the high priest of Amon in Thebes becomes more important than the high priest of Ptah in Memphis and the high priest of Ra/Atum in Heliopolis (Cairo)

1,500 BCE Egyptian empire extends to the Euphrates.

1492 BCE Tuthmosis I dies and is the first pharaoh buried in a tomb cut in the rock at the necropolis outside Thebes (“Valley of the Kings”)

1479 BCE Tuthmosis III becomes pharaoh and reorganizes the empire according to an efficient military bureaucracy

1,479 BCE – 1,458 BCE Queen Hatshepsut rules Egypt.

1,458 BCE – 1,425 BCE Reign of Thutmose III in Egypt.

1,458 BCE Kadesh and Megiddo lead a Canaanite alliance against the Egyptian invasion by Thutmose III.

1458 BCE Tuthmosis III defeats the Mitannis and conquers Syria, the peak of Egyptian power

1,457 BCE  Battle of Megiddo: Thutmose III of Egypt defeats a coalition of Canaan, Kadesh, Mitanni, and Megiddo led by Durusha, king of Kadesh.

1,450 BCE Egyptians use the sundial

1400 BC 1400s: King Thutmose III and Ancient Egypt reached the height of its power when military expeditions brought the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea under Egyptian rule

1391 BCE Amenhotep III becomes pharaoh and builds the palace complex at Malkata (near Thebes) and the temple of Amon at Luxor

1,386 BCE – c. 1,353 BCE Reign of Amenhotep III of Egypt.

1353 BCE Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) becomes pharoah, married to Nefertiti, and builds the new capital at Amarna, north of Thebes, dedicated to the god Atum, banishing all other gods

1,353 BCE – c. 1,336 BCE  Reign of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun’s father, `Heretic King’ of Egypt imposing his views on the people. The Amarna Period in Egypt.

1,336 BCE – c. 1,327 BCE Reign of child, Tutankhamun with Ankhsenamun as Queen.

1,334 BCE  A child, Tutankhamun becomes pharaoh and initiates religious reforms returning Egypt to traditional belief structure.

1,327 BCE – 1,323 BCE Reign of Ay in Egypt.

1,323 BCE Tutankhamon is killed at 19 and is buried in the “Valley of the Kings” at Thebes

1,320 BCE – 1,292 BCE Reign of Horemheb in Egypt, Tutankhamun’s name erased from record.

1,320 BCE Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Horemheb, succeeds Ay as ruler of Egypt

1,319 BCE general Horemheb becomes pharaoh, destroys Amarna, re-establishes order in Egypt and moves the capital back to Memphis

1,307 BCE Horemheb dies and his Amon high priest Ramesses I becomes pharaoh (19th dynasty) and moves the capital to his hometown of Avaris

1,306 BCE Ramesses I dies and is succeeded by his son Seti I

1,303 BCE  Birth of Ramesses II of Egypt.

1300 BCE Egyptians build a canal connecting the Nile and the Red Sea

1,295 BCE – 1,188 BCE
The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

1,295 BCE – 1,294 BCE
The reign of Ramesses I in Egypt.

1,294 BCE – 1,279 BCE
The reign of Seti I in Egypt.

1290 BCE Seti I dies, having built the largest tomb in the “Valley of the Kings” and the largest monument at Abydos, and his son Ramesses II succeeds him, married to Nefertari

1,279 BCE – 1,212 BCE Reign of Ramesses II (The Great) in Egypt.

1276 BCE-1178 BCE The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt.

1,275 BCE the Egyptian king Rameses II fights against the Hittite king Muwatalli at the city of Kadesh in Syria

1,274 BCE  Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites.

1,264 BCE – c. 1,244 BCE . Probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.

1,258 BCE The Treaty of Kadesh between Egyptians and Hittites. The world’s first peace treaty.

1250 BCE Ramesses II transfers the capital to Pi-Ramesse in the delta, builds two temples at Abu Simbel, the Colossus at Memphis (immortalizing Ramesse), the Hypostyle Hall of the Karnak temple at Luxor, and a huge tomb at Thebes

1,244 BCE – c. 1,224 BCE
Other probable dates for the construction of Abu Simbel.

1,224 BCE Ramesses II dies

1,196 BCE Sethnakhte founds the 20th dynasty

1,194 BCE Sethnakhte dies and his son Ramesses III becomes pharoah and builds the temple at Medinet Habu (near Thebes)

1,194 BCE – 1,153 BCE
Reign of Ramesses III, Pharaoh of Egypt.

1,180 BCE Sea Peoples increased their raids and incursions into Egypt.

1,180 BCE – 1,178 BCE Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty fortifies Xois against the threat of the invading Sea Peoples.

1,178 BCE Rameses III defends Egypt from the Sea Peoples on the shores at Xois, defeating them completely.

1075 BC 1075-715 The 21st-25th Egyptian Dynasties the 3rd Intermediate Period – the Nubians conquer Egypt (late 8th century)

1,069 BCE – 525 BCE  Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.

1069 BCE the high priests of Amon usurp the title of king and split Egypt in two, the north with capital in Tanis (on the Mediterranean Sea) ruled by the 21st dynasty and the south with capital in Thebes ruled by the priests of Amon

926 BCE Palestine is invaded by pharoah Shoshenk

750 BCE Iron working is introduced to Egypt.

720 BCE the Nubian (Black) king Piankh/ Piye of Kush (Sudan) conquers the various kingdoms of Egypt and founds the Nubian dynasty

715 BCE-332 BCE  The 20th-30th Egyptian Dynasties the Late Period and the Persians conquer Egypt in 525BC lead by the Persian king Cambyses II, Persian Period 2. Assyrians conquered Egypt for a short time. Persian ruled Egypt for over 100 years but Egypt got its independent again (404 BCE-343 BCE).

712 BCE – 671 BCE Egypt is ruled by the Kushite dynasty.

710 BCE Piankh’s successor Shabaka moves the capital from Napata to Thebes

699 BCE Nubian (Black) king Tirhakah/Taharqa (son of Piankh) ascends to the throne of Egypt and moves the capital to Memphis.

671 BCE the Assyrians defeat Tajarqa and capture the Egyptian capital of Memphis and conquers Egypt — Second Egyptian Campaign

667 BCE – 665 BCE . Ashurbanipal wages war in Egypt to put down rebellions.

664 BCE Taharqa withdraws to Napata and builds the Nuri pyramid, the first pyramid in a thousand years

664 BCE Psamtik I becomes Pharoah in Egypt.

653 BCE Egypt expels Assyrians.

646 CE The Arab Muslims conquer Egypt under Caliph Umar.

610 BCE Neko II becomes king of Egypt and starts building a canal from the Red Sea to the Nile but never completes it.

605 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II leads the Babylonians to conquer Carchemish and defeat the Egyptian army, but in 601 BCE Nebuchadnezzar is unsuccessful in attempts to takeover Egypt.

527 CE – 646 CE
The Byzantine Empire controls Egypt.

525 BCE Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium and takes the city

525 BCE Imhotep is deified in Egypt.

525 BCE – 404 BCE Persia conquers Egypt.

520 BCE Darius of Persia links the Nile and the Red Sea by a canal. The Persians complete Neko II’s canal.

404 BCE Amyrtaios of Sais expels the Persians (28th, 29th and 30th dynasties)

398 BCE – c. 380 BCE
Plato travels in Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily.

343 BCE the Persians conquer Egypt completed two years later again (31st dynasty)

332 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. Alexander the Great occupies Egypt and his general, Ptolemy, becomes king and founds a dynasty. Greek culture was spread throughout Egypt during this dynasty. The city of Alexandria was founded and became famous for the Great Library and the great Lighthouse of Alexandria which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

332 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Syria and turns toward Egypt and one year later conquers Egypt without resistance

332 BCE-395 AD Greco-Roman Period. Egypt was occupied by Alexander the Great. The Rosetta Stone was created. The reign of Cleopatra VII. Egypt became part of the Roman Empire.

331 BCE  Alexander the Great founds Alexandria at the port town of Rhakotis.

323 BCE – 31 BCE The Hellenistic Age. Greek thought and culture infuses with indigenous people.

323 BCE – 282 BCE Rule of Ptolemy I Soter.

323 BCE Alexander dies at Babylon and Ptolemy inherits Egypt

312 BCE Ptolemy’s general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, establishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty

307 BCE-285 BCE Reign of Ptolemy I creates the library of Alexandria (Museum)

300 BCE Ptolemy I builds the Pharos of Alexandria and founds the Museum of Alexandria.

283 BCE Ptolemy dies

277 BCE – 276 BCE 4,000 Celts are employed in Egypt under Ptolemy II.

259 BCE Celts in Egypt fail to overthrow Ptolemy II and are starved to death on an island.

247 BCE The lighthouse at Alexandria (Pharos) is completed.

232 BCE Emperor Maximinus Thrax commands a legion

217 BCE 14,000 Celts serve under Ptolemy IV in his victory at Raphia over the Seleucid King Antiochos III.

198 BCE the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine from the Ptolemaics

196 BCE the Rosetta Stone is carved in both Greek and Egyptian

69 BCE – 12 Aug 30 BCE Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.

51 BCE-30 BCE Cleopatra VII Ptolemy becomes queen of Egypt (last of the Greek monarchs). Cleopatra VII reigns and became the mistress of Julius Caesar and gave birth to his son, Octavian.

47 BCE  Cleopatra VII is sole ruler of Egypt; she presents herself as the goddess Isis.

37 BC 37 BC Queen Cleopatra VII of the Ptolemies marries Mark Antony

31 BCE Octavian & Agustus defeat Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony are defeated by Augustus. Cleopatra & Anthony commit suicide and Egypt becomes a province of the Roman empire. End of the Ptolemaic Rulers, but the bloodline continues.

30 BCE – 14 CE
Reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome, restoration of Roman province of Alexandria with Egypt a province of the Roman empire.

1 BCE First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India.

30AD – 476 AD Egypt remains a province of the Roman Empire.

50 AD – 60 AD Establishment of various Christian communities in the Eastern Mediterranean, Greece, Egypt, and at least the city of Rome.

145 AD: the astronomer Ptolemy of Alexandria publishes the “Almagest” that summarizes the geocentric theory

250 AD: Diophantus of Alexandria writes the “Arithmetica”, a treaty on the solution of algebraic equations and on the theory of numbers

384 AD Theodosius ordered the adherence to Christianity

394 AD: the last known hieroglyph is inscribed at Philae

395 AD The Roman empire split into West and East and Egypt became part of the Byzantine Empire

600 AD: Alexandria has 200,000 inhabitants

641 AD: Egypt is conquered by the Arabs and forced to convert to Islam

642 AD The Arabs captured Alexandria and Egypt became an important part of the Islamic Empire. The Arabs destroy the library of Alexandria

868 AD- 969 AD The Tulunid and the Ikhshidid dynasty rule Egypt

969 AD Fatimid rulers seized Egypt and founded the Egyptian city Al-Qahirah (modern day Cairo)

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Source Article from https://concisepolitics.com/2017/09/13/timeline-for-ancient-egypt-300000-bce-to-969-ad/

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